Thursday, March 31, 2005

Ovington, Mary White

Born three days before the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, Ovington was reared in an upper-middle-class home by abolitionist

Bridalveil Fall

Cataract on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada in Yosemite National Park, east-central California, U.S. Fed mainly by melting snow, the waterfall has a height of 620 feet (189 m) and forms one of the most scenic features in the park.


Also spelled  Aella, or Aelli   first king of Deira in northern England, whose people threw off the Bernician overlordship upon the death of Ida, king of Bernicia. Aelle became king in 559, while Ida's descendants continued to reign in the northern kingdom. On Aelle's death the Bernician king Aethelric again subdued Deira, but Aelle's son Edwin (q.v.) would return to rule as the most powerful English ruler

Wednesday, March 30, 2005

China, The end of Mongol rule

The basic dilemma of Mongol rule in China—the Mongols' inability to achieve a durable identification with Chinese civilian institutions and to modify the military and colonialist character of their rule—became more apparent under Kublai's successors and reached a maximum under Togon-temür, the last Yüan ruler. Togon-temür was not unfriendly toward Chinese civilization,

Tsutsumi Family

Born into a peasant family, Tsutsumi Yasujiro (b. 1889, Shiga prefecture, Japan—d. April 26, 1964) graduated from Waseda University in 1913. He founded the Kokudo Keikaku land-management company in 1918 and began buying

Tuesday, March 29, 2005


Founded in the 13th century BC by Shalmaneser I, Calah remained unimportant until King Ashurnasirpal II (reigned 883–859 BC) chose it as his royal seat and the military capital of Assyria. His extensive work on the

Monday, March 28, 2005

Furniture, Carving

Whereas carving does not appear to

Sunday, March 27, 2005

Xia Gui

One of the best English-language sources of information on Hsia Kuei is the article on him by Sherman E. Lee in the Encyclopedia of World Art, vol. 7 (1963), col. 650–654. See also Osvald Sirén, Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and Principles, vol. 2 (1956, reissued 1974), pp. 119–124; and James Cahill, Chinese Painting (1960, reissued 1985), pp. 79–87, which discuss Hsia Kuei in the context of the Ma-Hsia school.

Pendleton Civil Service Act

Widespread public demand for civil service reform was stirred after the Civil War by mounting incompetence, graft, corruption, and theft in federal departments and agencies. After

Friday, March 25, 2005

Biblical Literature, Letters

Among the apocryphal letters are: a 2nd-century Epistula Apostolorum (“Epistle of the Apostles”; actually apocalyptic and antiheretical), the Letter of Barnabas, a lost Letter of Paul to the Alexandrians (said to have been forged by followers of Marcion), the late-2nd-century letter called “III Corinthians” (part of the Acts of Paul and composed largely out of the genuine letters


Ancient Roman unit of capacity for grain and liquid products equal to 48 sextarii and equivalent to about 27.84 litres (7.36 U.S. gallons). The term amphora was borrowed from the Greeks, who used it to designate a measure equal to about 34 litres (9 U.S. gallons).


Muwatallis was the son and successor of Mursilis II. Although Muwatallis' accession was unmarred by the customary flurry of revolts among the Hittite vassal states, a struggle with resurgent Egypt for the domination of Syria became imminent after Egypt reconquered Palestine and made the Orontes River

Thursday, March 24, 2005


Member of a people of South Arabia in pre-Islamic times, founders of the kingdom of Saba' (q.v.), the biblical Sheba.


The Braves led baseball with a

Wednesday, March 23, 2005

Black Panther Party

Original name  Black Panther Party For Self-defense,  American black revolutionary party founded in 1966 in Oakland, Calif., by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. The party's original purpose was to patrol black ghettoes to protect residents from acts of police brutality. The Panthers eventually developed into a Marxist revolutionary group that called for the arming of all blacks, the exemption of blacks from the draft and from


(Greek: “city at the top”), central, defensively oriented district in ancient Greek cities, located on the highest ground and containing the chief municipal and religious buildings. Because the founding of a city was a religious act, the establishment of a local home for the gods was a basic factor in Greek city planning. From both a religious and a military point of view,

Tuesday, March 22, 2005

Arabia, History Of, World War I

The Ottoman Empire entered World War I holding all of western Arabia and supported in central northern Arabia by the Rashidis of Ha'il. Earlier Ottoman attempts to extend the empire to eastern Arabia, however, had been countered by the British, who were then paramount in the gulf and in treaty relation with the Arab sheikhdoms there. Sharif Husayn ibn 'Ali of Mecca, with assurance

Buchan, John, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir

A clergyman's son, Buchan was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Oxford, where he began

Monday, March 21, 2005


In the 4th and 3rd centuries BC Yang-chou was a fief known as Kuang-ling in the state of Ch'u. After the Ch'in unification of the empire in 221 BC, it became the seat of a county. Under the Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 220), it was the seat


M. fistulosa, growing to 1.5 m (5 feet) tall, has a minty aroma. The more sharply scented Oswego tea (M. didyma), shorter and

Saturday, March 19, 2005

Hancock, Herbie

At age 11 Hancock played the first movement of a Mozart concerto with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. He formed

H I Region

Also spelled  Hi Region,   in astronomy, interstellar matter composed of neutral hydrogen atoms. Most of the matter between the stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, to which the Earth belongs, as well as in other spiral galaxies, occurs in the form of relatively cold, neutral hydrogen gas with a temperature of only about 100 K and a density of approximately one atom per cubic cm. There also exist cold compact

Friday, March 18, 2005

Soga Umako

A leader of the Soga family of Japan, who was responsible for the destruction of the powerful Mononobe and Nakatomi clans and the ascendancy of the Soga to a position of supreme power. Umako was instrumental in introducing Buddhism into Japan. His influence helped spur the introduction of Chinese cultural, bureaucratic, and administrative


One of the first feudal states in the area, a principality ruled by Prince Menumorut in the 9th–10th centuries, was centred on a citadel

Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra

American symphony orchestra based in Cincinnati, Ohio. It was founded in 1895 by the all-female board of trustees of the Cincinnati Orchestra Association, headed by Helen Herron Taft, wife of future U.S. president William Howard Taft. The fifth oldest symphony orchestra in the United States, the Cincinnati Symphony maintains a year-round performing schedule, including

Thursday, March 17, 2005

Coney Island

Amusement area in the southern part of the borough of Brooklyn in New York, N.Y., U.S., fronting the Atlantic Ocean. Formerly an island, it was known to Dutch settlers as Konijn Eiland (“Rabbit Island”), which was presumably Anglicized as Coney Island. It became part of Long Island after Coney Island Creek silted up to form a sandbar (about 5 miles [8 km] long and 0.25–1 mile [0.4–1.6 km] wide) between

Wednesday, March 16, 2005

Tariq Ibn Ziyad

Musa ibn Nusayr, the Arab conqueror of Morocco, left his general Tariq to govern Tangier in his place. Spain at this time was under Visigothic rule but was rent by civil war. The dispossessed sons of the recently deceased Visigothic king of Spain, Witiza, appealed to the Muslims for help in the civil war, and the Arabs quickly responded

Ecuador, Drainage

As the annual thawing of snow occurs in the mountains, numerous rivers rise, pass through the hoyas of the Sierra, and flow either west to the Pacific coast or east to the Amazon River. The Costa is primarily drained into the Pacific Ocean by the Guayas basin. Formed by the juncture of the Daule and Babahoyo rivers and their affluents, the Guayas River is navigable for

Tuesday, March 15, 2005

Tardieu, André

A member of an upper middle-class family, Tardieu studied at the École Normale Supérieure. After a period in the diplomatic service, he made his reputation as foreign editor of Le Temps. Elected


Vedantadesika was born into a distinguished Srivaisnava family that followed the teachings of Ramanuja, an 11th–12th-century

Monday, March 14, 2005


Town, southern Côte d'Ivoire. It is the chief collecting point for a forest region that sends coffee, cocoa, and timber (sipo and mahogany) to the coast for export and is a major market centre (rice, bananas, and yams) for the Bete and Gagu (Gagou) peoples. A paved road connects Gagnoa with Abidjan, the capital of Côte d'Ivoire. The town is the site of the government's first rural technical

Sunday, March 13, 2005


Wade-Giles romanization  kung-pi  in Chinese painting, meticulous brush technique that delimits details very precisely and without independent or expressive variation. It is often highly coloured and usually depicts figural or narrative subjects. The term gongbi is also used to refer to paintings that are generally more descriptive than interpretive. Gongbi paintings are considered to be


Town, western Côte d'Ivoire. It lies along the Boan River, a tributary of the Nuon (Nipoué, Cestos) River, and at the intersection of roads from Liberia, Guinea, and the Ivoirian town of Man. It is the chief trade centre (rice, coffee, and kola nuts) of a forested region mainly inhabited by the Dan people. Pop. (1975) town, 19,608.


Eindhoven was chartered in 1232 by Henry I, duke of Brabant. It developed after 1900 from a small village into one of the largest industrial centres of The Netherlands. In 1920 five adjoining municipalities were annexed, thereby increasing Eindhoven's

Saturday, March 12, 2005

Wurlitzer Family

Rudolph Wurlitzer (b. Jan. 30, 1831, Schöneck, Saxony [Germany]—d. Jan. 14, 1914, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.), emigrated to the United States in 1853, settling in Cincinnati. He began dealing in musical instruments, which had been the traditional family business since the time of lute-maker Heinrich Wurlitzer (1595–1656). By 1861 he was no longer able to fill all


Beech order of dicotyledonous woody flowering plants, a division of the subclass Hamamelidae.

Friday, March 11, 2005


Chartered city, northern Mindanao, Philippines, on the Agusan River near its mouth at Butuan Bay. A major settlement in early Spanish times, Butuan was visited by ships from Borneo and Luzon, reportedly trading for gold, cinnamon, and slaves. A Jesuit mission station was established there in the late 16th century. It has become the main commercial centre for the Agusan


Latin  Novaria,   capital of Novara provincia, Piemonte (Piedmont) regione, northwestern Italy. It lies along the Agogna River, west of Milan. It originated as the Roman colony of Novaria, which was founded by Julius Caesar and destroyed in the 5th century; a new commune, established in the 6th century, was burned by the Holy Roman emperor Henry V in 1110. It recovered to become a member of the Lombard

Thursday, March 10, 2005

Romania, Flag Of

In 1834 the Ottoman government recognized local flags for use in Moldavia and Walachia, two principalities that later joined to form Romania. Their local flags were based on ancient heraldic banners—blue with an ox head (Moldavia) and yellow with an eagle (Walachia). Walachia also chose a naval ensign with horizontal stripes of red, blue, and yellow, colours later selected

Biblical Literature, Acts

The various acts, close in form and content to the contemporary Hellenistic romances, turned the apostolic drama into melodrama and satisfied the popular taste for stories of travel and adventure, as well as for a kind of asceticism that was generally rejected by Christian leaders: Andrew (including the Acts of Andrew and Matthias Among the Cannibals), Barnabas

Kazin, Alfred

The son of Russian Jewish immigrants, Kazin attended the City College of New York during the Great Depression and then worked as a freelance book reviewer for The New Republic and other periodicals. At age 27 he wrote a sweeping

Wednesday, March 09, 2005

Port De Bras

The position of the dancer's head and shoulders (épaulement) is important to

Monday, March 07, 2005

Rajasthan, Education and welfare

There are a number of educational establishments in Rajasthan, including state-run universities at Jaipur, Udaipur, Jodhpur, and Ajmer; the Open University at Kota; and the Birla Institute of Technology and Science at Pilani. There are several state hospitals and dispensaries. There also are many Ayurvedic, Unani (a medicinal system using prescribed herbs and shrubs), and


The culverin was adapted to field use by the French in the mid-15th century and to naval use by the English in the late 16th century. During the 17th century, cannons were classified according to the weight of projectiles fired, and


The Latin word sacramentum, which etymologically is an ambiguous theological term, was used in Roman law to describe a legal sanction in which a man placed his

Orlov, Grigory Grigoryevich, Graf (count)

Having entered the cadet corps in 1749, Orlov became an artillery officer and fought in the Battle of

Sunday, March 06, 2005


Spanish  Aragón  comunidad autónoma (“autonomous community”) and historical region of northeastern Spain. It encompasses the provincias of Huesca, Zaragoza (Saragossa), and Teruel and was established by the statute of autonomy of August 10, 1982.

Fux, Johann Joseph

Fux was a prolific composer of vocal and instrumental

Saturday, March 05, 2005

China, Establishment of the People's Republic

The Communist victory in 1949 brought to power a peasant party that had learned its techniques in the countryside but had adopted Marxist ideology and believed in class struggle and rapid industrial development. Extensive experience in running base areas and waging war before 1949 had given the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) deeply ingrained operational habits and proclivities.


Ganesha, considered the remover of obstacles, is the first god invoked at the beginning of worship or of a new enterprise, and he is often positioned near thresholds and gateways. He is a patron of letters and learning, and he is the

Friday, March 04, 2005

Nahman Ben Simhah Of Bratslav

The great-grandson of the Ba'al Shem Tov, the founder of the Hasidic movement, Nahman was an ascetic from childhood. Married at age 13, he became a self-appointed religious leader and teacher at about age 20. After studying (1798–99) in Tiberius,


Macadamias originated in the coastal rain forests and scrubs of what is now Queensland in northeastern Australia. The macadamias grown commercially in Hawaii and Australia are principally

Thursday, March 03, 2005

Bassano, Jacopo

His early works, such as the “Susannah and the

Wednesday, March 02, 2005

Saint Clair's Defeat

(November 4, 1791), one of the worst defeats ever suffered by U.S. forces in Indian warfare, precipitated by British-Indian confrontation with settlers and militia in the Northwest Territory following the American Revolution. Despite specific provisions in the Treaty of 1783 for the evacuation of its forts on the northwestern border, Britain had failed to yield these lucrative

Tuesday, March 01, 2005

Seto-guro Ware

Japanese ceramic ware created at Mino during 1573–96. A black ware, it stands in contrast to the contemporary pure-white Shino ware. Seto-guro (“black Seto”) was produced by a process that involved firing the iron-glaze ware in an oxidizing kiln from which it was suddenly removed and immediately cooled. The shade of black achieved was far richer than had been achieved in the earlier

Gradient Wind

Hypothetical wind that accounts for air flow along a curved trajectory. It is an extension of the concept of geostrophic wind—i.e., the wind assumed to move along straight and parallel isobars (lines of equal pressure). The gradient wind represents the actual wind better than does the geostrophic wind, especially when the wind speed and trajectory curvature are large,

Permafrost, Offshore structures

One of the most active and exciting areas of permafrost engineering is in subsea permafrost. Knowledge of the distribution, type, and water or ice content of subsea permafrost is critical for planning petroleum exploration, locating production structures, burying pipelines, and driving tunnels beneath the seabed. Furthermore, the temperature of the seabed must