Monday, January 31, 2005

Medicine, Family health care

In many societies special facilities are provided for the health care of pregnant women, mothers, and their young children. The health care needs of these three groups are generally recognized to be so closely related as to require a highly integrated service that includes prenatal care, the birth of the baby, the postnatal period, and the needs of the infant. Such

Sunday, January 30, 2005

Patristic Literature, Late 2nd to early 4th century

Meanwhile, a brilliant and distinctive phase of Christian literature was opening at Alexandria, the chief cultural centre of the empire and the meeting ground of the best in Hellenistic Judaism, Gnosticism, and Neoplatonism. Marked by the desire to present Christianity in intellectually satisfying terms, this literature has usually been connected with the

Celtic Literature, The 18th century: the first revival

The mid-18th century was, after the 14th, the most fruitful period of Welsh literature. Goronwy Owen, inspired by English Augustanism, reintroduced and improved the strict metres of the cywydd and awdl (by this time a long poem written in a number of the classical cynghanedd metres). He also introduced a wide range of subject content, and thus founded a new classical school


Also called  Polysiloxane,   any of a diverse class of chemical polymers manufactured in the form of fluids, resins, or elastomers. Although they are partially organic in composition, the molecules of silicones differ from those of most polymers in that the backbone of their structure does not contain carbon, the characteristic element of organic compounds, but is a polysiloxane chain, in which

Saturday, January 29, 2005


There is little reliable information about Corax's life or his work, of which nothing survives. He was active at a time when democratic constitutions had replaced tyrannies in Sicily. He specialized in the theory of forensic oratory and is said to have advocated argument


In northern Buddhism, one of the eight fierce protective deities. See dharmapala.

Peter Rabbit

In 1993 children of all ages celebrated the 100th birthday of the world's best-known and most beloved lagomorph. The guest of honour was not only long in the tooth, he was also long in the ears. Peter Rabbit, who began his public life in Edwardian times and retained his best-seller status in the postmodern era, proved to be a contemporary centenarian. A nontrendy vegetarian, the

Friday, January 28, 2005

Basil, Colonel W. De

Original name  Vasily Grigorievich Voskresensky  Russian impresario who in 1932 became codirector with René Blum of the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo. He lost the celebrated premier danseur Léonide Massine and several other dancers to Blum, who, with a U.S. sponsoring agency (World Art), reorganized the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo with Massine as director. De Basil then formed a

Thursday, January 27, 2005


City, Allegheny county, southwestern Pennsylvania, U.S. It is situated at the junction of the Monongahela and Youghiogheny rivers, 14 miles (23 km) southeast of Pittsburgh. First settled about 1769 by David McKee, a ferry operator, the town was laid out in 1795 by his son John. In 1794 it was a centre of dissident activity during the Whiskey Rebellion (an insurrection against an excise tax on

Wednesday, January 26, 2005


Also called  Ixcuina, or Tlaelquani,   Aztec goddess who represented sexual impurity and sinful behaviour; she was probably introduced to the Aztecs from the gulf lowlands of Huaxteca. Tlazoltéotl was an important and complex earth-mother goddess. She was known in four guises, associated with different stages of life. As a young woman, she was a carefree temptress. In her second form she was the destructive

Christensen, Willam

Christensen studied with the great ballet master and reformer Michel Fokine. He performed in vaudeville with his brothers before joining the San Francisco Opera Ballet as

Hinchinbrook Island

Island off the northeastern coast of Queensland, Australia. It is situated opposite the port of Cardwell and 60 miles (95 km) northeast of Townsville. About 22 miles (35 km) long and 152 square miles (394 square km) in area, it is separated from the mainland by Hinchinbrook Channel. The thickly wooded, mountainous island, now a national park, is noted for its waterfalls and caves. Its rugged

Tuesday, January 25, 2005

Tibaldi, Pellegrino

Tibaldi grew up in Bologna in a family of Lombard stonemasons. He was trained as a painter under minor Emilian artists who imitated the style of Raphael; in 1547, however, he went to Rome and worked with Perino del Vaga.

Monday, January 24, 2005


Greek historian, author of the Anabasis. Its prose was highly regarded by literary critics in antiquity and had strong influence on Latin literature.

Boxing, Professional boxing

The man who made boxing into big business was George (“Tex”) Rickard, the sport's first great promoter. After staging the world's lightweight championship bout between Joe Gans and Oscar (“Battling”) Nelson to publicize the mining town of Goldfield, Nevada, in 1906, he realized the potential of prizefighting. Rickard made an art of boxing publicity, playing on the public's prejudices


(species Serinus canaria), popular cage bird of the family Carduelidae (order Passeriformes). It owes its coloration and sustained vocal powers to 400 years of selective breeding by humans. Varieties called rollers trill almost continuously, the notes running together; choppers have a loud trill of distinct notes. Well-known breeds include Hartz Mountain, Norwich, and

Sunday, January 23, 2005


In the Roman period a civilian settlement, Luguvallium (later the town of Carlisle), grew up on the south bank of the Eden, opposite Petriana (later Stanwix), a fortified camp on the line of Hadrian's Wall. The town dominated the surrounding area


Genus of tapeworms parasitic in mammals. See tapeworm.

Smith, Kate

Smith started singing before audiences as a child, and by age 17 she had decided on a career in show business. She went to New York City in 1926 and landed a role in a Broadway musical, Honeymoon Lane, the same year. In a succession of Broadway shows she had little chance

Saturday, January 22, 2005


Secondary deposit of minerals found in a rounded, elongated, or almond-shaped cavity in igneous rock. The cavities (vesicles) were created by the expansion of gas bubbles or steam within lava. Some amygdules consist partially of lava, which indicates their formation during solidification of the rock. Since gas bubbles tend to rise through the lava, amygdules are most

Thursday, January 20, 2005

Cyprus, The Persian Empire

In 525 BC the Cypriot kings transferred their allegiance to the Achaemenid (Persian) conquerors of Egypt. The Cypriots retained their independence until the accession of Darius I in 522 but were then incorporated into the fifth satrapy of the Persian Empire. When the Ionians revolted in 499, all the kingdoms of Cyprus except Amathus joined them; the revolt was subsequently suppressed,

Macdowell Colony

After Edward's death

Crommelynck, Fernand

Crommelynck, who was the child of a French mother and a Belgian father, came from a family connected with the theatre and was himself trained as an actor. After some early successes in Belgium, including such

Wednesday, January 19, 2005

France, History Of, Napoleon and the Revolution

The Revolutionary legacy for Napoleon consisted above all in the abolition of the ancien régime's most archaic features—“feudalism,” seigneurialism, legal privileges, and provincial liberties. No matter how aristocratic his style became, he had no use for the ineffective institutions and abuses of the ancien régime. Napoleon was “modern” in temperament as well as

Saint Clair, Lake

Lake in west-central Tasmania, Australia, lying at the southern boundary of Cradle Mountain–Lake St. Clair National Park at the terminus of a 53-mile [85-kilometre] walking track from the mountain. It has an area of 11 square miles (28 square km), measures 9 miles by 1 mile (14.5 by 1.6 km), and lies at an elevation of 2,417 feet (737 m) on Tasmania's Central Plateau. It fills a valley once deepened by a glacier and

Li Dazhao

After studying at Tientsin and at Waseda University in Tokyo, Li became an editor for Hsin ch'ing-nien (“New Youth”), the principal journal of the new Western-oriented literary and cultural movements. In 1918 he was appointed chief librarian of Peking University, and

Tuesday, January 18, 2005

Constans Ii Pogonatus

The son of the emperor Constantine III, Constans came to the throne in September 641, at age 11, after his father's death; during his minority the regency was under the control of the Senate

Monday, January 17, 2005

Three Kings, Battle Of The

Sebastian, a religious zealot, wished to subject Muslim Morocco to Christian rule. Allied with the deposed Moroccan sultan, al-Mutawakkil, he landed at Tangier weighed down by much artillery and an army of 20,000 men. At the Wadi al-Makhazin near Ksar el-Kebir (Alcazarquivir),


The status, prior to 1939, of each of the British Commonwealth countries of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Eire, and Newfoundland. Although there was no formal definition of dominion status, a pronouncement by the Imperial Conference of 1926 described Great Britain and the dominions as “autonomous communities within the British Empire, equal in status,

Sunday, January 16, 2005

Iowa City

City, seat (1839) of Johnson county, east-central Iowa, U.S., on the Iowa River, 27 miles (43 km) south of Cedar Rapids. Founded as territorial capital of Iowa in 1839, it lost the state capital to Des Moines in 1857 but retained the University of Iowa (1847). With the arrival of the railroad (1855), Iowa City became an important dispersal point for westward immigrants. Coralville, just to the west, was the starting

Nation, Carry

Carry Moore as a child experienced poverty, her mother's mental instability, and frequent bouts of ill health. Although she held a teaching certificate from a state normal school, her education was intermittent. In 1867 she married a young physician,

Saturday, January 15, 2005

Cumberland House

Unincorporated settlement and historic site on the south shore of Cumberland Lake (formerly Pine Island Lake, part of the Saskatchewan River system), eastern Saskatchewan, Canada. It lies near the Manitoba boundary, 85 miles (137 km) northeast of Nipawin. The house, built in 1774 by Samuel Hearne of the Hudson's Bay Company, was the company's first major inland trading post and the

Sinn Féin

Political wing of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA). Sinn Féin, organized in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, is a Nationalist party in Northern Ireland, representing Roman Catholics who want to achieve a united Ireland through whatever means are necessary, including violence. The party was led by Gerry Adams from 1983.

Friday, January 14, 2005

Maccarthy, Sir Desmond

MacCarthy was associated with the Bloomsbury group. He began his career as a freelance journalist, quickly moving to editorial work


Pali  Vesali  city of ancient India, north of Patna, northwestern Bihar state, on the Gandak River. In antiquity Vaisali was the capital of the Licchavi republic and was closely associated with the early histories of both Buddhism and Jainism. Roads connected it with Rajagrha to the south and Kapilavastu and Sravasti to the north. Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, was born in Vaisali and spent much

Thursday, January 13, 2005

Hooghly River

Also spelled  Hugli,   river in West Bengal state, northeastern India, an arm of the Ganges, providing access to Calcutta from the Bay of Bengal. It is formed by the junction of the Bhagirathi and Jalangi rivers at Nabadwip. From there the Hooghly flows generally south for about 160 miles (about 260 km) to the Bay of Bengal, through a heavily industrialized area with more than one-half of West Bengal's population.

Sinn Féin

Extinct aquatic lizards that attained a high degree of adaptation to the marine environment and were distributed worldwide during the Cretaceous Period (144 million to 65 million years ago). The mosasaurs competed with other marine reptiles—the plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs—for food, which consisted largely of ammonoids, fish, and cuttlefish. Many mosasaurs of the

Argyll And Bute

Council area, western Scotland, extending from the southwestern Grampian Mountains into the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and North Channel in ragged peninsulas indented and separated by deepwater lochs (sea inlets). Freshwater lochs (lakes) dot the inland areas. It includes many islands of the Inner Hebrides—notably Mull, Islay, and Jura. The council area incorporates

Wednesday, January 12, 2005


The emirate's wooded savanna area of about 1,150 square miles (2,980 square km) originally included four small Koro chiefdoms that paid tribute to the Hausa kingdom of Zazzau.

Tuesday, January 11, 2005

Reproduction, Life cycles of animals

Invertebrate animals have a rich variety of life cycles, especially among those forms that undergo metamorphosis, a radical physical change. Butterflies, for instance, have a caterpillar stage (larva), a dormant chrysalis stage (pupa), and an adult stage (imago). One remarkable aspect of this development is that, during the transition from caterpillar to adult, most of

Trigonal System

Components of crystals in the trigonal system, like those of the hexagonal system, are located by reference to four axes—three of equal length with 120° intersections and one perpendicular to the plane

Monday, January 10, 2005

Wu, Chien-shiung

Wu graduated from the National Central University in Nanking, China, in 1936 and then traveled to the United States to pursue graduate studies in physics

Sunday, January 09, 2005


The records of Sargon II of Assyria show that he took it in 712 BC. Gath was evidently a place of importance,


City, capital of Teramo provincia, Abruzzi regione, central Italy. It lies at the confluence of the Tordino and Vezzola rivers, between the Adriatic Sea and the Gran Sasso d'Italia mountain group, northwest of Pescara. Teramo was built on the site of Interamna (Interamnia), a town of the ancient Praetuttii tribe, and was destroyed during the barbarian invasions. It was


Also spelled  Bilbeis, or Bilbis,   town, southwestern ash-Sharqiyah muhafazah (governorate) in the eastern Nile River delta, Lower Egypt. Bilbays lies northeast of Cairo, on the main road from Ismailia and Port Said and on the al-Isma'iliyah Canal. Its name is an Arabic corruption of the Coptic Phelbes. Situated on a caravan and natural invasion route from the east, Bilbays was conquered in AD 640 by the Arabs, who in 727 resettled

Saturday, January 08, 2005

Chang Ling

Chang settled in the Szechwan area and there studied the Tao (“Way”) sometime during the reign (125–144) of Emperor Shun Ti of the Eastern Han dynasty. Later he composed a Taoist work to propagate his cult, which attracted many followers among both the Chinese and the indigenous ethnic

Friday, January 07, 2005

Carter Family

Singing group consisting of Alvin Pleasant Carter, known as A.P. Carter (b. April 15, 1891, Maces Spring, Va., U.S.—d. November 7, 1960, Kentucky),his wife Sara, née Dougherty (b. July 21, 1898, Flatwoods, Virginia—d. Jan. 8, 1979, Lodi, Calif.), and his sister-in-law Maybelle Carter, née Addington (b. May 10, 1909, Nickelsville, Va.—d. Oct. 23, 1978, Nashville, Tenn.), a leading force in the spread and popularization of Appalachian Mountain folk


Circular toy adaptable to many games, children's and adults', probably the most ubiquitous of the world's toys, after the ball. The ancient Greeks advocated hoop rolling as a beneficial exercise for those not very strong. It was also used as a toy by both Greek and Roman children, as graphic representations indicate. Most of these ancient hoops were of metal. Most later

Thursday, January 06, 2005

Biogenic Landform

Any topographic feature that can be attributed to the activity of organisms. Such features are diverse in both kind and scale. Organisms contribute to the genesis of most topography involving rock weathering; they play an auxiliary role, as demonstrated by bacterial and lichen activity, the effects of root wedging, and solutional erosion made possible by humic

Macdiarmid, Hugh

The son of a postman, MacDiarmid was educated at Langholm Academy and the University of Edinburgh. After serving in World War I he became a journalist in Montrose, Angus, where he edited three issues of the first

Wednesday, January 05, 2005


City, seat (1807) of Natchitoches parish, west-central Louisiana, U.S., on Cane River Lake, 68 miles (109 km) southeast of Shreveport. The oldest permanent settlement in the Louisiana Purchase territory, it was founded about 1714 as Fort St. Jean Baptiste by the French-Canadian explorer and soldier Louis Juchereau de Saint-Denis to forestall Spanish occupation of the area and to set up a


An amphibole mineral in the tremolite-actinolite-ferrotremolite series of calcium, magnesium, and iron silicates. The minerals in this series are abundant in regionally metamorphosed rocks, such as schists. Tremolite may weather to talc, and both tremolite and actinolite may alter to chlorite or carbonates. For chemical formula and detailed physical properties,

Tuesday, January 04, 2005


Village at the head of East Loch Tarbert, an inlet on the west side of of Loch Fyne, Argyll and Bute council area, historic county of Argyllshire, Scotland. Its name means isthmus, and it occupies a narrow neck of land joining the Peninsula of Kintyre to the rest of Argyll. The herring fishery, which was its mainstay, has declined, but Tarbert has developed modestly as a resort

Altai Mountains

The system has three main subdivisions: the Altai proper (formerly

Monday, January 03, 2005


Ukrainian  Kyyiv,  Russian  Kiyev,  also spelled  Kyiv   oblast (province), north-central Ukraine. In the mid-1990s the oblast was separated administratively from the city of Kiev, which serves as the oblast capital though it is a self-governing city not under oblast jurisdiction. The oblast lies astride the Dnieper River, with the greater part on the western bank. Most of the oblast thus lies on the low, flat plain of the Dnieper

Sunday, January 02, 2005

Vadstena Bracteate

Gold coin-like ornament with runic inscriptions and rich designs, discovered in Östergötland, Swed., probably dating from the 5th century. A 24-character futhark (runic alphabet), arranged in three groups of eight symbols, is engraved on it, followed by eight characters, tuwa tuwa, of unknown, perhaps magical, significance. The bracteate is the oldest and best record of the

Ankara, Treaty Of

Also called  Franklin-Bouillon Agreement  (Oct. 20, 1921), pact between the government of France and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey at Ankara, signed by the French diplomat Henri Franklin-Bouillon and Yusuf Kemal Bey, the Turkish nationalist foreign minister. It formalized the de facto recognition by France of the Grand National Assembly, rather than the government of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI, as the sovereign

Ansky, S.

Ansky was educated in a Hasidic environment and as a young man was attracted to the Jewish Enlightenment (Haskala) and to the populist doctrines of the Narodniki, a group of socialist revolutionaries. For a time he worked among the peasants and contributed

Saturday, January 01, 2005


Ancient unit of length, now standardized at 4 inches (10.16 cm) and used today primarily for measuring the height of horses from the ground to the withers (top of the shoulders). The unit was originally defined as the breadth of the palm including the thumb. A statute of King Henry VIII of England established the hand at four inches. Units of various lengths were used by the ancient

Defense Mechanism

In psychoanalytic theory, any of a group of mental processes that enables the mind to reach compromise solutions to problems that it is unable to resolve. The process is usually unconscious, and the compromise generally involves concealing from oneself internal drives or feelings that threaten to lower self-esteem or provoke anxiety. The concept derives from

Furphy, Joseph

The son of Irish immigrants, Furphy worked as a thresher, teamster, and gold miner before settling down in 1884 at his brothers'