Friday, December 31, 2004

Tapestry, 16th century

Two new trends became apparent in the 16th century. The first, brought about by war and persecution in Flanders, resulted in the widespread diffusion of the Flemish art of tapestry weaving. Many Flemish artisans in the 16th century were forced to become refugees. Some grouped together to live the life of travelling craftsmen, while others attempted to reestablish their

Thursday, December 30, 2004

Lignum Vitae

Guaiacum officinale occurs from the southern United States to northern South America. It grows about 9 m (30 feet) tall and reaches a diameter of about 25 cm (10 inches). The evergreen leaves are opposite, divided into leaflets

Dennis, Nigel

Dennis spent his early childhood in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and was educated, in part, at the Odenwald School in Germany. He moved to Britain

Mcmahon, Sir William

He was educated at the University of Sydney, where he earned a degree in law. After practicing as a solicitor in Sydney he enlisted in the Australian Army in 1939 and rose to the rank of major. He served in the House of Representatives for Lowe (New South Wales)

Wednesday, December 29, 2004

Geologic Sciences, Oil and natural gas

Crude oil and natural gas in commercial quantities are generally found in sedimentary rocks along rifted continental margins and in intracontinental

Tuesday, December 28, 2004

Decroly, Ovide

Belgian pioneer in the education of handicapped and normal children. He was a physician who became involved in a school for abnormal children and consequently became interested in education. One outcome of this interest was his establishment in 1901 of the Institute for Abnormal Children in Uccle, Belg., a school that provided a homelike

Kerll, Johann Caspar Von

In 1645 Kerll was sent by Ferdinand III to study in Rome with the prominent composers Giacomo Carissimi and Girolamo Frescobaldi; earlier he had studied in Vienna. His study in Italy had great influence on his composition, much of which is Italianate in

Monday, December 27, 2004

Johansson, Christian

Johansson studied at the Royal Swedish Ballet School and in Copenhagen with August Bournonville, who was most responsible for establishing the traditions of the Royal Danish

Atheriniform

Beryciforms and zeiforms are mostly deep-bodied fishes of small to moderate size, a foot or less in length. The lampridiforms include a few rare, deep-bodied forms, notably the disk-shaped opah, which may reach more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) in weight, but the majority are much elongated, ribbonlike fishes, including the giant oarfish, Regalecus, which reaches eight metres

Sunday, December 26, 2004

Spooner Amendment

Filipinos fought the imposition of American rule, and it was believed in the United States that their

Saturday, December 25, 2004

Aquinas, Thomas, Saint

The biography of Thomas Aquinas is one of extreme simplicity; it chronicles little but some modest travel during a career devoted entirely to university life: at Paris, the Roman Curia, Paris again, and Naples. It would be a mistake, however, to judge that his life was merely the quiet life of a professional teacher untouched by the social and political affairs of his

Ibn Tumart

In full  Abu 'abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Tumart   Berber spiritual and military leader who founded the al-Muwahhidun confederation in North Africa (see Almohads). The doctrine he taught combined a strict conception of the unity of God with a program of juridical and puritanical moral reform, based on a study of the Qur'an and of tradition.

Bahamas, The

A constitutional monarchy and member of the Commonwealth, The Bahamas comprises an archipelago of about 700 islands in the North Atlantic Ocean just southeast of the United States. Area: 13,939 sq km (5,382 sq mi). Pop. (1996 est.): 280,000. Cap.: Nassau. Monetary unit: Bahamian dollar, with (Oct. 11, 1996) a par value of B$1 to U.S. $1 (free rate of B$1.58 = £ 1 sterling). Queen, Elizabeth II; governor-general in 1996, Orville Turnquest; prime minister,

Friday, December 24, 2004

Barb

Also called  Barbary,   native horse breed of the Barbary states of North Africa. It is related to, and probably an offshoot of, the Arabian horse but is larger, with a lower placed tail, and has hair at the fetlock (above and behind the hoof). The coat colour is usually bay or brown. Like the Arabian, it is noted for speed and endurance. A variety known as the Spanish-Barb is bred in small numbers in the

Chibchan Languages

A group of South American Indian languages that were spoken before AD 1500 in the area now comprising Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, western Colombia, and Ecuador. A now extinct Chibchan language sometimes known as Muisca was the language of a powerful Indian empire with its centre near Bogotá. Important present-day Chibchan languages include Guaymí and Move in Panama,

Mercury Processing, Metallurgical uses

Mercury amalgamates, or mixes, readily with many metals. Amalgams of mercury, silver, and tin have been the most successful material for repairing dental cavities. Gold and silver

Thursday, December 23, 2004

Xerxes I

With the tranquillity of the empire reestablished, Xerxes would willingly have devoted himself to peaceful activities. But many of those around him were pressing for the renewal of hostilities. His cousin and brother-in-law Mardonius, supported by a strong party of exiled Greeks, incited him to take revenge for the affront that Darius had suffered at the hands of

Wednesday, December 22, 2004

Mahan, Larry E.

In 1962 Mahan won the all-around Oregon championship and also won the bareback bronc and bulldogging

Submarine, World War I

By the eve of World War I all of the major navies included submarines in their fleets, but these craft were relatively small, were considered of questionable military value, and generally were intended for coastal operations. The most significant exception to the concept of coastal activity was the German Deutschland class of merchant U-boats, each 315 feet long with

Wolffian Duct

In advanced vertebrates the Wolffian duct develops

Tuesday, December 21, 2004

Shari'ah, Procedure and evidence

Traditionally, Shari'ah law was administered by the court of a single qadi, who was the judge of the facts as well as the law, although on difficult legal issues he might seek the advice of a professional jurist, or mufti. There was no hierarchy of courts and no organized system of appeals. Through his clerk (katib) the qadi controlled his court procedure, which was normally characterized

Monday, December 20, 2004

Ashide-e

(Japanese: “reed-script picture”), decorative, cursive style of Japanese calligraphy, the characters of which resemble natural objects, that is used to decorate scrolls, stationery, and lacquerware. The typical ashide-e is a decorative representation of a poem, in which stylized characters serve as both

Halston

Halston studied at Indiana University and the Art Institute of Chicago and operated a millinery shop in Chicago before joining milliner Lilly Daché in New York City. In 1959 he became a milliner for Bergdorf Goodman; in 1966 he expanded his line into clothes

Sunday, December 19, 2004

Iran, Nadir Shah (1736–47)

Nadr later dethroned Tahmasp II in favour of the latter's son, the more pliant 'Abbas III. His successful military exploits, however, which included victories over rebels in the Caucasus, made it feasible for this stern warrior himself to be proclaimed monarch—as Nadir Shah—in 1736. He attempted to mollify Persian-Ottoman hostility by establishing in Iran a less aggressive form

Itapicuru River

River, Maranhão estado (“state”), northeastern Brazil. The river rises in several headstreams in the Itapicuru mountain range. It arches northeastward to Caxias and thence northwestward, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean through São José Bay, southeast of São Luís Island. The river's total length is approximately 750 miles (1,200 km), of which about 400 miles (640 km) are navigable.

Saturday, December 18, 2004

Hughes, (james Mercer) Langston

Black poet and writer who became, through numerous translations, one of the foremost interpreters to the world of the black experience in the United States. Hughes's parents separated soon after his birth, and young Hughes was raised by his mother and grandmother. After his grandmother's death, he and his mother moved to half a dozen

Ramcaritmanas

(“Sacred Lake of the Acts of Rama”), version, written in a dialect of Hindi, of the Sanskrit epic poem the Ramayana, one of the masterpieces of medieval Hindu literature and a work with significant influence on modern Hinduism. Written in the 16th century by the poet Tulsidas (q.v.), the poem is distinguished both by its great expression of love for a personal god and by its exemplification

Friday, December 17, 2004

Iran, The Qajar dynasty (1796–1925)

Between 1779 and 1789 the Zands fought among themselves over their legacy. In the end it fell to the gallant Lotf 'Ali, the Zands' last hope. Agha Muhammad Khan relentlessly hunted him down until he overcame and killed him at the southeastern city of Kerman in 1794. In 1796 Agha Muhammad Khan assumed the imperial diadem, and later in the same year he took Mashhad. Shah Rokh died of the tortures inflicted

Abseron Peninsula

Also spelled  Apsheron , Azerbaijani  Abseron Yasaqligi  peninsula in Azerbaijan that extends 37 miles (60 km) eastward into the Caspian Sea and reaches a maximum width of 19 miles (30 km). An eastern extension of the Caucasus Mountains, the Abseron Peninsula consists of a gently undulating plain, in part dissected by ravines and characterized by frequent salt lakes and lands flooded by tides. Vineyards and tea plantations are features

Thursday, December 16, 2004

Hyderabad

Former princely state of south-central India, founded by Nizam-ul-Mulk (Mir Qamar-ud-Din), who was intermittently viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal emperors from 1713 to 1721 and who resumed the post again under the title Asaf Jah in 1724, at which time he became virtually independent. He founded the dynasty of the Nizams of Hyderabad. The British and the French participated in the wars of succession

Uccle

Flemish  Ukkel  municipality, Brussels region, central Belgium. It lies just south of Brussels and is one of the 19 communes that make up Greater Brussels. Formerly a separate town dating back to the 12th century, it is now a primarily residential suburb with some light manufacturing. It is the site of the Royal Observatory and has several châteaus (Errera, Uccle, and Ithier). The Russian Orthodox

Wednesday, December 15, 2004

Sendak, Maurice (bernard)

Sendak was the son of Polish immigrants and received his formal art training at the Art Students' League in New York City. While attending school he drew backgrounds for All-American Comics and did window displays for a toy store. The first children's books he illustrated were Marcel

Tuesday, December 14, 2004

Mountain, The North American Cordillera

Subduction of oceanic lithosphere presently occurs only beneath two segments of the coast of western North America. The subduction

Monday, December 13, 2004

Switzerland, Celtic Switzerland

During the Iron Age, from 850 BC on, the area that was to become Switzerland was inhabited by Celts in the west and Rhaetians in the east. A rough boundary between the tribes ran from Lake Constance to the Gotthard by way of the Linth valley. The Helvetii, one of the most powerful of the Celtic tribes, controlled much of the area between the Jura and the Alps. Because of pressures

Anderson, Laurie

Anderson began studying classical violin at five years of age and later performed with the Chicago Youth Symphony. In 1966 she moved to New York City, where she attended Barnard College (B.A., 1969) and Columbia University

Sunday, December 12, 2004

Abbott, Bud; And Costello, Lou

Bob Furmanek and Ron Palumbo, Abbott and Costello in Hollywood (1991); Stephen Cox and John Lofflin, The Abbott and Costello Story: Sixty Years of Who's on First? (1997).

Regeneration

Organisms differ markedly in their ability to regenerate parts. Some grow a new structure on the stump of the old one. By such regeneration whole organisms may dramatically replace substantial portions of themselves when they have been cut in two, or may grow organs or

Saturday, December 11, 2004

Toynbee Hall

Pioneering social settlement in the East End of London. It was founded on Commercial Street, Whitechapel (now in Tower Hamlets), in 1884 by the canon Samuel Augustus Barnett and named for the 19th-century English social reformer Arnold Toynbee. During his early years at St. Jude's Church, Barnett invited members of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge to the impoverished

Friday, December 10, 2004

Muir Woods National Monument

One of the two virgin stands of coastal redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) in the U.S. National Park Service. The groves lie near the Pacific coast of California, U.S., 15 mi (24 km) northwest of San Francisco at the foot of Mt. Tamalpais. Some of these trees are more than 300 ft (90 m) high and 15 ft in diameter and are more than 2,000 years old. The forest, established in 1908 with an area of 503 ac (204 ha), was a gift of Congressman

Hawarden

Town, historic and present county of Flintshire (Sir Fflint), northeastern Wales. Hawarden Castle (1752) was the home of William E. Gladstone, the Victorian prime minister, for 60 years. St. Deiniol's Library was founded by Gladstone in 1895, and there is also a Gladstone museum in the community. Hawarden functions as both a commuter suburb for the city of Chester, England—7 miles (11 km)

Thursday, December 09, 2004

Tjokroaminoto, Omar Said

The Sarekat Dagang Islam (Association of Islamic Traders), established in 1911 to promote the interests of Indonesian traders faced with growing

Wednesday, December 08, 2004

Xiong Foxi

Xiong Foxi began writing, directing, and acting in plays as a youth and, while at Yen-ching University, helped to establish the Min-chung Hsi-chü She (People's Dramatic Society). After graduate work at Columbia University,

Tuesday, December 07, 2004

Uummannaq Fjord

Also spelled  Umánaq, or Umanak,   inlet of Baffin Bay and town, western Greenland, north of Nuussuaq Peninsula, separated from Karrat Isfjord by Upernivik and Ubekendt islands. About 100 miles (160 km) long and 15–30 miles (24–48 km) wide, Uummannaq divides into several smaller fjords extending eastward to the inland ice cap, where they are fed by extensive glaciers. Qarajaqs Isfjord is its most southerly arm. The town of

Biblical Literature, The Letter of Paul to the Ephesians

The authenticity of Ephesians as a genuinely Pauline epistle has been doubted since the time of the Dutch Humanist Erasmus in the 16th century. It is most reasonable to consider it as “deutero-Pauline”—i.e., in the tradition of Paul but not written by him. The problem of Ephesians cannot be solved apart from that of Colossians, because many similarities are noted in the style

Monday, December 06, 2004

Torcy, Jean-baptiste Colbert, Marquis De

The son of Charles Colbert, minister of foreign affairs, Torcy was a brilliant student, earning a law degree (1683) at so young an age that he needed special dispensation to receive it. His father initiated him into the art of diplomacy, and the

Calcitonin

Also called  Thyrocalcitonin,   a protein hormone secreted in humans and other mammals by parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland, and in birds, fishes, and other nonmammalian vertebrates by cells of the ultimobranchial bodies, which are discrete calcitonin-secreting glands. Calcitonin lowers the concentration of calcium in the blood when it rises above the normal value. It has the opposite

Sunday, December 05, 2004

Turbat

Town, Balochistan province, Pakistan. The town is located on the left bank of the Kech River, which is a tributary to the Dasht River. The area in which Turbat is situated is drained to the south by the Dasht River; the Makran Range to the north and east descends to coastal plains in the south. The town is a marketplace for dates grown in the surrounding region and has a date-processing

Saturday, December 04, 2004

Bukhara

Uzbek  Bukhoro,  also spelled  Buchara  or  Bokhara  city and administrative centre, Bukhoro oblast (province), Uzbekistan, on the Shakhrud Canal in the delta of the Zeravshan River, at the centre of Bukhara oasis. Founded not later than the 1st century AD, it was already a major trade and crafts centre when the Arabs captured it in 709. The capital of the Samanid dynasty in the 9th–10th centuries, it later was seized by the Qarakhanids

Friday, December 03, 2004

Generation Of 1898

The shock of Spain's defeat in the war, which left it stripped of the last vestiges of its empire and its international prestige,

Cartoon

Originally, and still, a full-size sketch or drawing used as a pattern for a tapestry, painting, mosaic, or other graphic art form, but also, since the early 1840s, a pictorial parody utilizing caricature, satire, and usually humour. Cartoons are used today primarily for conveying political commentary and editorial opinion in newspapers and for social comedy and visual wit

Thursday, December 02, 2004

China, Administration, social conditions, and cultural life

The following periodicals give current information on social, political, cultural, and economic affairs: The China Quarterly; Far Eastern Economic Review (weekly); The China Business Review (bimonthly); China Today (monthly); China Pictorial (monthly); and China News Analysis (biweekly).

Earth

Terrestrial body whose solid surface, abundant waters, and oxygen-rich atmosphere have combined to create conditions suitable for life. This article discusses the structure, composition, and properties of the solid Earth. For detailed treatment of its surface features, atmosphere, and waters, see the articles atmosphere, hydrosphere, ocean, river, lake, and continental

Kiel

City, capital (1945) of Schleswig-Holstein Land (state), northern Germany. Kiel is a port on both sides of the Kiel Fjord, an inlet of the western Baltic, and lies at the eastern end of the Kiel Canal. The name Kyle (“fjord,” or “spring,” possibly derived from the Anglo-Saxon kille: “a safe place for ships”) was used for the settlement as early as the 10th century. The city was founded in 1242, and it adopted