Tuesday, November 30, 2004

France, History Of, Commerce

Commerce, especially with the colonies, was an important area of change as well. France's first colonial empire, essentially located in America, was a source of great wealth. Even though France lost both Canada and India during the Seven Years' War (1756–63), the Caribbean sugar islands continued to be the most lucrative source of French colonial activity in the last 100 years of


Silicate mineral, zirconium silicate, ZrSiO4, the principal source of zirconium. Zircon is widespread as an accessory mineral in acid igneous rocks; it also occurs in metamorphic rocks and, fairly often, in detrital deposits. It occurs in beach sands in many parts of the world, particularly Australia, India, Brazil, and Florida, and is a common heavy mineral in sedimentary

Sunday, November 28, 2004

Bessières, Jean-baptiste, Duke D'istrie

In 1792 Bessières joined Louis XVI's constitutional guard as a private. After serving in Catalonia as a captain, he was chosen to command Napoleon's escort

Saturday, November 27, 2004

Saronic Gulf

Modern Greek  Saronikós Kólpos,  also called  Gulf Of Aegina,   gulf of the Aegean Sea between Ákra (cape) Soúnion of the Attica peninsula and Ákra Skíllaion of the Argolis peninsula of the Greek Peloponnese. A maximum of 50 mi (80 km) long northwest–southeast and about 30 mi wide, it is linked on the west to the Gulf of Corinth by the Corinth Canal. At its widest point the gulf is divided by three of the Saronic islands: Salamís, Aíyina (Aegina), and

Japanese Literature, Late Tokugawa period (c. 1770–1867)

The literature of the late Tokugawa period is generally inferior to earlier achievements, especially those of the Genroku masters. Authentic new voices, however, were heard in traditional poetic forms. Later neo-Man'yoshu poets such as Ryokan, Okuma Kotomichi, and Tachibana Akemi proved that the tanka was not limited to descriptions of the sights of nature or disappointed

Friday, November 26, 2004


City, south-central KwaZulu/Natal province, South Africa. It lies in the Umsindusi River valley, at the base of a tree-covered escarpment, inland from Durban. Boers from the Cape Colony, who founded it in 1839 after a victory over the Zulus at Blood River, named it to honour their dead leaders Piet Retief and Gerrit Maritz. The British took control in 1843 and built Fort Napier (now


Hardening of the walls of the small arteries and arterioles (small arteries that convey blood from arteries to the even smaller capillaries) of the kidney. This condition is caused by hypertension (high blood pressure). Hypertension can be present in a person for 20 to 30 years without evidence of kidney involvement; such persons usually die of other effects of hypertension

Sun River

River in northwest-central Montana, U.S. It rises in Flathead National Forest, in Teton county near the Continental Divide, and flows southeastward for a course of 130 miles (209 km) into the Missouri River at Great Falls. The Sun River irrigation project includes a system of dams, reservoirs, and canals. Its three reservoirs are Gibson, Pishkun, and Willow Creek.

Wednesday, November 24, 2004


The principal nonmotile cells of connective tissue; fibroblasts are large, flat, elongated (spindle-shaped) cells possessing processes extending out from the ends of the cell body. The cell nucleus is flat and oval. Fibroblasts produce tropocollagen, which is the forerunner of collagen, and ground substance, an amorphous, gel-like matrix that fills the spaces between

Eckstine, Billy

Eckstine left Howard University after winning an amateur contest in 1933 and began singing in nightclubs and with xance bands. From 1939 to 1943 he sang with Earl Hines's band, and at his urging Hines hired

Tuesday, November 23, 2004

Stoicism, Renascence of Stoicism in modern times

If the influence of Stoic doctrines during the Middle Ages was largely restricted to the resolution of problems of social and political significance, it remained for the Renaissance, in its passion for the rediscovery of Greek and Roman antiquity, to provide a basis for the rebirth of Stoic views in logic, epistemology, and metaphysics, as well as the documentation

Monday, November 22, 2004

Agung, Abulfatah

Agung encouraged English and French trade but successfully opposed Dutch expansion into the area in the early part of his reign. In the 1670s, however, when he attempted to change the succession to his throne from his older son Sultan Haji to his younger son, Haji revolted and with Dutch help seized the throne. Haji


Dimness of vision that may be gradual or sudden in onset and may affect both eyes or one. It may be transient or permanent and can develop into blindness. The disorder may be caused by hysteria or by poisoning with ethyl or methyl (wood) alcohol, lead, arsenic, thallium, quinine, ergot, male fern, carbon disulfide, stramonium, or Cannabis sativa (Indian hemp, the plant from which

Sunday, November 21, 2004

Wild Flower

Also spelled  Wildflower,  any flowering plant growing without intentional human aid. Wild flowers are the source of all cultivated garden varieties of flowers. Although most wild flowers are native to the region in which they occur, some are the descendants of flowering plants introduced from other lands. The bright flowers characteristic of the Hawaiian Islands, for example, are nearly

Saturday, November 20, 2004

Eastern Orthodoxy, Modern theological developments

Until the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks (1453), Byzantium was the unquestioned intellectual centre of the Orthodox Church. Far from being monolithic, Byzantine theological thought was often polarized by a Humanistic trend, favouring the use of Greek philosophy in theological thinking, and the more austere and mystical theology of the monastic circles. The

Ustinov, Sir Peter

Ustinov's grandfather was a Russian officer in the czar's army who was exiled because of his religious beliefs. “It is for that reason,” Ustinov later said, “that I am addressing you today in English.” His father was a respected British

Friday, November 19, 2004

Aichinger, Gregor

Aichinger took holy orders and became organist to the family of Jakob Fugger at Augsburg from 1584. He visited Italy in 1584–87 and again in 1598–1600. His music is chiefly choral and ecclesiastical, set to Latin

Thursday, November 18, 2004


Plural  Roma , also called  Gypsy , also spelled  Gipsy  any member of the traditionally itinerant people who originated in northern India but live in modern times worldwide, principally in Europe. Most Roma speak some form of Romany, a language closely related to the modern Indo-European languages of northern India, as well as the major language of the country in which they live. It is generally agreed that Roma groups

Wednesday, November 17, 2004



Abu Simbel

Also spelled  Abu Sunbul 

Monday, November 15, 2004


Cluster of peoples living on the fringe of the southern Sudan, especially in the northwestern regions of the Central African Republic and the south-central area surrounding Sarh, south of Lake Chad in Chad. They include the Gula, Kara, Kreish, Nduka, Ngama, and Sara proper. The Sara peoples all speak Central Sudanic languages of the Nilo-Saharan language family, and their

Clapham Sect

Group of evangelical Christians, prominent in England from about 1790 to 1830, who campaigned for the abolition of slavery and promoted missionary work at home and abroad. The group centred on the church of John Venn, rector of Clapham in south London. Its members included William Wilberforce, Henry Thornton, James Stephen, Zachary Macaulay, and others. Many were members of

Sunday, November 14, 2004

Gash River

Arabic  Nahr Al-qash,  river rising in southern Eritrea, near Asmara. After flowing southward, it turns west and forms the border between Eritrea (north) and Ethiopia (south) along its middle course. It then continues into northeastern Sudan to lose itself in the desert. In time of flood it reaches the Atbara River. It is known as the Mareb on its upper course and is used for irrigation around

Prosper Of Aquitaine, Saint

Latin  Prosper Tiro   early Christian polemicist famous for his defense of Augustine of Hippo and his doctrine on grace, predestination, and free will, which became a norm for the teachings of the Roman Catholic church. Prosper's chief opponents were the Semi-Pelagians, who believed in the power of man's innate will to seek God, but at the

Saturday, November 13, 2004

Somali Basin

Submarine basin on the floor of the southwestern Arabian Sea, an arm of the Indian Ocean, east of Somalia. The Carlsberg Ridge separates it from the shallower Arabian Basin to the northeast. The Somali Basin also connects with the Mascarene and Madagascar basins to the south, with sill depths greater than 11,800 feet (3,600 m). Sill depths between the Somali and Arabian basins have

Friday, November 12, 2004

Water Scavenger Beetle

Any of the approximately 2,000 species of the predominately aquatic insect family Hydrophilidae (order Coleoptera). These beetles are found swimming in marshy freshwater ponds throughout the world, especially in warm regions. Water scavenger beetles have smooth, oval, dark-brown or black bodies and short, hairy, clubbed antennae. They range in length from several to

Thursday, November 11, 2004

Devrient, Ludwig

Born to a family of wholesale drapers,


City, seat (1817) of Adams county, southwestern Mississippi, U.S., on the Mississippi River (there bridged to Vidalia, Louisiana), about 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Vicksburg. Established in 1716 as Fort Rosalie by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, it survived a massacre (1729) by Natchez Indians for whom it was later named. It passed from France to England (1763) at the conclusion of the French and

Wednesday, November 10, 2004


Also spelled  Prabalingga, or Perobolinggo,   city, in kabupaten (regency), Jawa Timur provinsi (“province”), Java, Indonesia, on the southern side of Madura Strait. There is a good harbour for small ships, and the fishing industry is important. Cottage industries include pottery and the manufacture of sarongs. The surrounding regency grows rice, corn (maize), sugar, rubber, coffee, and mangoes, the last renowned for their

Tuesday, November 09, 2004

Seshachalam Hills

Hill ranges of the eastern Ghats, southern Andhra Pradesh state, southeastern India. Formed during Precambrian time (about 3.8 billion to 540 million years ago), the ranges contain sandstone and shale interbedded with limestone, are highly dissected, and have many longitudinal valleys. They are bounded by the Rayalaseema uplands in the west and northwest and the Nandyal

Jacobi, Sir Derek

Born into a nontheatrical family—his father was a London department store manager, his mother a secretary—Jacobi first developed a taste for performing while attending the all-male Leyton County High School. Earning a

Monday, November 08, 2004

Block And Tackle

Combination of a flexible rope, or cable, and pulleys commonly used to augment pulling force; it can be used to lift heavy weights or to exert large forces in any direction. In the Figure there are four freely rotating pulleys, two on the upper block, which remains fixed, and two on the lower block, which moves up as the load W is lifted; one end of the rope is anchored to the upper

Sunday, November 07, 2004

Endocrine System, Human

It is important to

åbo, Treaty Of

(1743), peace settlement that concluded the Russo-Swedish War of 1741–43 by obliging Sweden to cede a strip of southern Finland to Russia and to become temporarily dependent on Russia. As a result of the Great Northern War (Treaty of Nystad, 1721), Sweden had lost Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, and part of Karelia to Russia. In 1741 Sweden reached a secret understanding (through French mediators) with

Saturday, November 06, 2004

Diefenbaker, John G(eorge)

After serving in World War I, Diefenbaker practiced law in Saskatchewan. He was made king's counsel in 1929. In 1936 he was chosen as leader of the Saskatchewan Conservative Party, serving at that post until 1940, when

Friday, November 05, 2004

Good Friday

According to the Jewish calendar, Jesus died on 15 Nisan,


Former (until 1973) county, Northern Ireland. It was bounded by the former counties of Londonderry (north) and Fermanagh and Monaghan (south), and by former County Armagh and Lough (lake) Neagh (east). It had an area of 1,260 square miles (3,263 square km). In the north, the Sperrin Mountains rise to 2,224 feet (678 m), the highest peaks being Sawel and Mullaghcloga. To the southwest, Bessy Bell (1,387 feet) and Mary Gray

Thursday, November 04, 2004

1812, War Of

(June 18, 1812–Dec. 24, 1814), inconclusive British–U.S. conflict arising chiefly out of U.S. grievances over oppressive maritime practices during the Napoleonic Wars. The long struggle between Great Britain and France, fought intermittently between 1793 and 1815, led both belligerents to infringe on the rights and impair the interests of neutrals. Napoleon averted hostilities

Wednesday, November 03, 2004

Vyshinsky, Andrey Yanuaryevich

Vyshinsky, a member of the Menshevik branch of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party since 1903, became a lawyer in 1913 and joined the Communist Party in 1920. While teaching at Moscow State University and practicing

Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Also called  idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome , or  hyaline membrane disease  a common complication in infants, especially in premature newborns, characterized by extremely laboured breathing, cyanosis (a bluish tinge to the skin or mucous membranes), and abnormally low levels of oxygen in the arterial blood. Before the advent of effective treatment, respiratory distress syndrome was frequently fatal. Autopsies of children who had succumbed

Tuesday, November 02, 2004

26th Of July Movement

Spanish  Movimiento 26 De Julio  revolutionary movement led by Fidel Castro that overthrew the regime of Fulgencio Batista in Cuba (1959). Its name commemorated an attack on the Santiago army barracks on July 26, 1953. The movement began formally in 1955 when Castro went to Mexico to form a disciplined guerrilla force. The leaders of the movement remaining in Cuba to carry out sabotage and political activities were

Monday, November 01, 2004


City, Canterbury local government region, eastern South Island, New Zealand, on the Avon River. It was the last and most successful colonizing project inspired by Edward Gibbon Wakefield and his New Zealand Company. Christchurch was founded by the Canterbury Association, which was formed in 1848 largely through the efforts of John Robert Godley and which planned to

Argentina, Political parties

The political party system in Argentina has been volatile, particularly in the 20th century, with numerous parties forming, taking part in elections, and disbanding as new factions evolve. Among the major parties are the Radical Civic Union (Unión Cívica Radical; UCR), a centrist party with moderate leftist leanings; the Justicialist Party (Partido Justicialista; PJ),