Saturday, October 30, 2004


Town, southeastern New South Wales, Australia, on the Murrumbidgee River. The site, originally a sheep run called Willia Ploma, was surveyed in 1838, and the town, a former riverport, derived its present name from an Aboriginal term for “going upstream.” A disastrous flood in 1852 drowned 89 townspeople. The discovery of gold in 1861 at nearby Spring Flat stimulated both its growth and bushranger


In cultural anthropology, theoretical type of human social organization based on small groups defined by traditions of common descent and having temporary or permanent political integration above the family level and a shared language, culture, and ideology. In the ideal model of a tribe, members typically share a tribal name and a contiguous territory; they

Criminal Law, Behavioral norms

The fact that the crime rates in many countries have risen faster than the population has brought into question the relevance of the law itself and whether or not laws against crime actually have an influence on an individual's behaviour. Various large-scale inquiries have been made into the relation between law and civil order: in the United States, the President's

Thursday, October 28, 2004

Ear Disease, Ototoxic drugs

Ototoxic (harmful to the ear) drugs can cause temporary and sometimes permanent impairment of auditory nerve function. Salicylates such as aspirin in large enough doses may cause ringing in the ears and then a temporary decrease in hearing that ceases when the person stops taking the drug. Quinine can have a similar effect but with a permanent impairment of auditory

Lippmann, Walter

While studying at Harvard (B.A., 1909), Lippmann was influenced by the philosophers William James and George Santayana. He helped to found (1914) The New Republic and served as its assistant editor under

Paraffin Wax

Colourless or white, somewhat translucent, hard wax consisting of a mixture of solid straight-chain hydrocarbons ranging in melting point from about 48° to 66° C (120° to 150° F). Paraffin wax is obtained from petroleum by dewaxing light lubricating oil stocks. It is used in candles, wax paper, polishes, cosmetics, and electrical insulators. It assists in extracting perfumes from flowers,

Wednesday, October 27, 2004

Savings And Loan Association

A savings and home-financing institution that makes loans for the purchase of private housing, home improvements, and new construction. Formerly cooperative institutions in which savers were shareholders in the association and received dividends in proportion to the organization's profits, savings and loan associations are mutual organizations that now

Tuesday, October 26, 2004

Furniture, Specialized furniture

Office furniture in the widest sense of the term has undergone rapid developments since mid-19th century. Such pieces as the high desks used by clerks in old offices and the big American rolltop desks have been replaced by carefully designed standard forms of writing desks with side cupboards, typewriting tables, filing cabinets, and office chairs with adjustable


Iphigeneia served as a key figure

Monday, October 25, 2004

Leaf-nosed Snake

Any of four species of small burrowing snakes of the family Colubridae that have the nose shield enlarged and flattened, with free edges. Several subspecies of each also exist. The two members of the genus Phyllorhynchus are found in creosote-bush deserts of the southwestern United States and Mexico, where they hunt at night for lizards and insects. The two species

Lowestoft Porcelain

English phosphatic soft-paste ware, resembling Bow porcelain, produced in Lowestoft, Suffolk, from 1757 to 1802; the wares are of a domestic kind, such as pots, teapots, and jugs. Generally on a small scale and light in weight, they are decorated in white and blue or in a polychrome that utilizes a bright brick red. After 1770 transfer printing was used. The shapes were copied from silverwork

Sunday, October 24, 2004

Suchocka, Hanna

The daughter of a pharmacist, Suchocka specialized in constitutional law at the University of Adam Mickiewicz in Poznan, from which she graduated in 1968. She lectured in law there and at the Catholic University of Lublin. In 1980 she joined the Sejm (parliament) as a member of the Democratic Party, which was then

Saturday, October 23, 2004

Eichler, August Wilhelm

Eichler studied mathematics and natural science at the University of Marburg (Ph.D., 1861). He then went to Munich, where he became a private assistant to the naturalist Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, with whom he edited Flora

Syrian Catholic Church

An Eastern Catholic church of the Antiochene rite, in communion with Rome since the 17th century. The Christians of Syria had been Monophysites since the 5th century; that is, they rejected the rulings of the Council of Chalcedon (451) and believed in the existence of only one nature in Christ. Attempts at unification with Rome were made, without success, in 1237 and 1247. With the establishment

Friday, October 22, 2004

Levinson, Salmon Oliver

Levinson practiced law in Chicago from 1891 and became noted for his skill in reorganizing the finances of distressed corporations. In an article in the New Republic, March 9, 1918, he argued that violence by nation-states should be declared illegal.

Thursday, October 21, 2004

Alarcón Y Ariza, Pedro Antonio De

Alarcón had achieved a considerable reputation as a journalist and poet when his play El hijo pródigo (“The Prodigal Son”) was hissed off the stage in 1857. The failure so exasperated him that he enlisted as a volunteer in the Moroccan campaign of 1859–60. The expedition

Gregory, Dick

Byname of  Richard Claxton Gregory   African-American comedian, civil rights activist, and spokesman for health issues, who became nationally recognized in the 1960s for a biting brand of comedy that attacked racial prejudice. By addressing his hard-hitting satire to white audiences, he gave a comedic voice to the rising Civil Rights Movement. In the 1980s his nutrition business venture targeted

Wednesday, October 20, 2004

Oscar I

Oscar's early liberal outlook and progressive ideas on such issues as fiscal policy, freedom of the press, and penal reform fortuitously coincided with a period of social, political, and industrial change. After his accession

Tuesday, October 19, 2004

France, History Of, The Enlightenment

The industrial and commercial developments, already significant by themselves, were the cause, and perhaps also the effect, of a wider and still more momentous change preceding the Revolution—the Enlightenment. Today the Enlightenment can be understood as the conscious formulation of a profound cultural transformation. Epistemologically, the French Enlightenment

Monday, October 18, 2004

Gregory, Dick

The gray whale attains a maximum length of about 15 metres (49 feet). It is gray or black, mottled with white, and has short yellow baleen with coarse bristles. There are two (rarely more) lengthwise grooves on its throat. Instead of

Tasmania, Self-government and Federation

Once the importation and exploitation of convicts had ended, the way opened for the grant of colonial self-government in 1855–56. Tasmania became the colony's official name, a portent of a happier age. Yet penalism had given the island an economic undergirding and historical import that have never been matched. Post-1860 Tasmania continued to be shadowed by its Vandiemonian

Sunday, October 17, 2004

Arabia, History Of, The Iran-Iraq War

A fresh threat to the rich oil states of the gulf arose with the revolution in Iran in 1978–79 and with the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq War in 1980. Islamic fundamentalism in the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's Iran struck an answering chord with Shi'ites and Iranian workers in the Arabian states, which gave financial support to Iraq. U.S. President Jimmy Carter and his successor in 1981, Ronald

Saturday, October 16, 2004



Epistemology, Knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description

The distinction between knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description was introduced by Bertrand Russell in connection with his celebrated theory of descriptions. Here only the epistemological (as distinct from the logical) version of his theory will be considered. It was invented by Russell to lend support to the basic thesis of empiricism that all

Friday, October 15, 2004


Town, central Myanmar (Burma). Lying on the Zawgyi River, 25 miles (40 km) south of Mandalay, it is served by the Mandalay-Yangôn (Rangoon) railway. The first Myanmar (Burmese) probably settled in the area about 800, and local 12th- and 13th-century inscriptions refer to Kyaukse as “the first home.” Remains of pagodas and old cities are found throughout the area. The Shwethalyaung pagoda, built

Amphibian, Larval stage

The amphibian larva represents a morphologically distinct stage between the embryo and adult. Most aquatic larvae depend on the environment for their food supply. Salamander and caecilian larvae remain more like their respective adults in structure, function, and nutritional requirements than do anuran larvae. Not long after emerging from their shells, larval

Thursday, October 14, 2004

France, History Of, The liberal years

The empire thus appeared to have compiled a record of unbroken successes and to be beyond challenge by its domestic critics. Perhaps it was this stability and self-confidence that led Napoleon, beginning in 1859, to turn in the direction of liberalizing the empire. The immediate impulse for this dramatic reversal was the attempted assassination of the emperor in January

Wednesday, October 13, 2004

Saint Catharines

City, Regional Municipality of Niagara, southeastern Ontario, Canada, on the south shore of Lake Ontario, at the entrance to the Welland Ship Canal. Named after the first wife of Robert Hamilton, member of the first legislative council of Upper Canada, it has grown from a small settlement established in 1790 to become the centre of the Niagara fruit belt and the largest city

Tuesday, October 12, 2004

Tachikawa, Keiji

After having endured months of disappointing sales, Japanese wireless provider NTT DoCoMo staged a spirited comeback in 2003 under the leadership of company president Keiji Tachikawa. NTT DoCoMo was operated by Nippon Telegraph & Telephone, Japan's main telecommunications carrier. The company had seen sales of its wireless phones plummet since 2001 as the mobile market

Monday, October 11, 2004


The First Presidency (church president and two councillors), the Council of the Twelve, the First Quorum of Seventy (and its presidency, concerned especially with missions), and the presiding bishop and two councillors (who control the Aaronic priesthood) constitute the “General Authorities” of the church. They are “sustained in office” by the regular and now ritualized

Sunday, October 10, 2004


City, seat (1853) of Cheboygan county, northern Michigan, U.S. The city lies along the Cheboygan River as it enters Lake Huron near the eastern end of the Straits of Mackinac. According to some reports, the site was an Indian camping ground until it was settled by Jacob Sammons in the 1840s. It was first called Duncan and then Inverness, later adopting Cheboygan, an Indian word possibly


Town and shire, southern Queensland, Australia. It lies along Lockyer Creek, about 58 miles (93 km) west of Brisbane. Probably named after Gattonside near Roxburgh in the Borders region, Scotland, it was gazetted as the site for a village in 1855 and by 1858 was a place of call for travelers between Brisbane and the Darling Downs. Gatton is now the service centre for a mixed-farming district

Saturday, October 09, 2004


An item of personal property that by immemorial usage is regarded as annexed by inheritance to a family estate. The owner of such an heirloom may dispose of it during his lifetime, but he cannot bequeath it by will away from the estate. If he dies intestate (without a will), the object goes to his heir at law; otherwise it goes to whoever takes the estate under his will. Such

Hawaii, Industry

Hawaii has several hundred companies engaged in diversified manufacturing. Heavy-manufacturing plants, using raw materials for the most part imported from the U.S. mainland, include an oil refinery that produces a variety of petroleum products and chemical compounds, a steel mill manufacturing reinforcing bars, several cement plants, a concrete-pipe plant, and

Thursday, October 07, 2004

Nahyan, Shaykh Shakhbut Ibn Sultan An-

As ruler of the largest emirate within the British-controlled Trucial Coast, Shakhbut maintained friendly relations with the United Kingdom and successfully resisted territorial incursions in a prolonged border dispute with Saudi Arabia. He was

Wednesday, October 06, 2004


City, Boyacá departamento, east-central Colombia. It lies along the Chicamocha River in the Andean Cordillera (mountains) Oriental, at an elevation of 8,428 feet (2,569 m) above sea level. Once a sacred city of the pre-Columbian Chibcha Indians, Sogamoso is a commercial and manufacturing centre for the surrounding agricultural and pastoral lands. Flour and textile milling and

Alba Longa

Ancient city of Latium, Italy, in the Alban Hills about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Rome, near present Castel Gandolfo. Tradition attributes its founding (c. 1152 BC) to Ascanius, the son of the legendary Aeneas, thus making it, according to legend at least, the oldest Latin city, which in turn founded others, including Rome. Excavations have revealed cemeteries that date to the 10th century

Tuesday, October 05, 2004

Araguaia River

Portuguese  Rio Araguaia,   river, central Brazil. It rises on the Brazilian Highlands near Alto Araguaia town in Mato Grosso state and flows north-northeast for 1,632 miles (2,627 km) to its junction with the Tocantins River, at São João do Araguaia. Its upper course forms the boundary between Mato Grosso state (west) and Goiás and southern Tocantins states (east). In midcourse the river divides into two channels

Monday, October 04, 2004

African Methodist Episcopal Church

Black Methodist church in the United States, formally organized in 1816. It developed from a congregation formed by a group of blacks who withdrew in 1787 from St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia because of restrictions in seating; blacks had been confined to the gallery of the church. Those who withdrew formed the Free African Society, the forerunner

Sunday, October 03, 2004

Ann, Cape

Cape on the Atlantic Ocean comprising the eastern extremity of Essex county, northeastern Massachusetts, U.S., 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Boston. Sheltering Ipswich Bay, it is indented by Annisquam Harbor on the north and Gloucester Harbor on the south. The tidal Annisquam River, a 4-mile- (6.4-km-) long navigable waterway, connects the two harbours. The cape also shelters the northern

Glacial Landform, Permafrost, patterned ground, solifluction deposits, and pingos

Permafrost is ground that remains perennially frozen (see permafrost). It covers about 20–25 percent of the Earth's land surface today. The “active layer” of soil close to the surface of permafrost regions undergoes many seasonal and daily freeze-thaw cycles. The constant change in the volume of water tends to move the coarser particles in the soil to the surface. Further

Saturday, October 02, 2004

Lloyd, Seton Howard Frederick

British archaeologist who led a number of digs in Iraq and Turkey and was the first director of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Turkey (b. May 30, 1902--d. Jan. 7, 1996).

Friday, October 01, 2004

Stephen Ii (or Iii)

He was a deacon when chosen on March 26, 752, as the second successor to Pope St. Zacharias (the first successor, Stephen II, had died on the previous day without being consecrated). The central act of his pontificate was to free the papacy from Byzantium and to ally it with the Franks