Thursday, September 30, 2004


Ancient kingdom of western or southwestern Anatolia (its exact location is disputed). Although Arzawa was for long periods a rival of the Hittite kingdom, it was occasionally conquered and made a vassal by some of the more powerful Hittite kings, such as Labarnas I (c. 1680–c. 1650 BC). During the period of Hittite decline after the end of the Old Kingdom (c. 1500 BC), Arzawa's power and prominence


So firm was belief in the existence of the river that the ancient Jewish historian Flavius

Wednesday, September 29, 2004

North Germanic Languages, Faroese

Prior to modern times literary activity in the Faroe Islands was minimal, but the local dialects continued to develop, though Danish was the official language. The Danish language scholar Rasmus Rask, who wrote the first Faroese grammar (1811), described the language as a dialect of Icelandic, but it is actually an independent language, intermediate between West Norwegian

Corcoran Gallery Of Art

The museum also houses the private collection of

Monday, September 27, 2004

Steer Roping

Rodeo event in which a mounted cowboy pursues a full-grown steer; lassos it with his rope, catching the animal by the horns; fastens the rope to his saddle; and stops his horse suddenly, throwing the steer to the ground. The cowboy then quickly dismounts and ties three of the steer's feet, raising both hands to signal completion. The event is timed, and the contestant with

Morales, Luis De

Morales may have studied with the Flemish painter Hernando

Sunday, September 26, 2004

Kazak Uplands

Kazak  Saryarqa , Russian  Kazakhsky Melkosopochnik , also spelled  Kazachskij Melkosopocnik  hilly upland in central and eastern Kazakstan, occupying about one-fifth of the republic. It is a peneplain, the mountainous Paleozoic foundation of which had already been worn down into an undulating plain by the beginning of the Mesozoic Era, beginning about 245 million years ago. Low hills are characteristic, and there are extensive depressions occupied by saline

Saturday, September 25, 2004


Polish  Slask , Czech  Slezsko , German  Schlesien  historic region that is now in southwestern Poland. Silesia was originally a Polish province that became a possession of the Bohemian crown in 1335, passed with that crown to the Austrian Habsburgs in 1526, was taken by Prussia in 1742, and was returned to Poland in 1945. Silesia consists largely of the basin of the upper and middle Oder River, which flows from southeast to northwest. The

Botany Bay

The bay was the site in 1770 of Captain James Cook's first landing in Australia. He named it Stingray Harbour but later changed the name because

Friday, September 24, 2004

China, Population distribution

Because of complex natural conditions, the population of China is quite unevenly distributed. Population density varies strikingly, with the greatest contrast occurring between the eastern half of China and the lands of the west and the northwest. Exceptionally high population densities occur in the Yangtze Delta, in the Pearl River Delta, and on the Ch'eng-tu

Thursday, September 23, 2004

Bailey, Donovan

At the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, Ga., Canadian sprinter Donovan Bailey won the 100-m dash in 9.84 sec to earn the appellation "the world's fastest man." Then he ran the last leg of the 4 ´100-m relay and helped the Canadian team win a gold medal in that event. These were impressive accomplishments for a man who had emerged as a factor in international track only in 1994 and did not set a world record

1927, Generation Of

Spanish  Generación Del  1927, in Spain, a group of poets and other writers who rose to prominence in the late 1920s and who derived their collective name from the year in which several of them produced important commemorative editions of the poetry of Luis de Góngora y Argote on the tercentenary of his death. In contrast to the earlier Generation of '98, most of whom were prose writers, the members of the

Madhya Pradesh

In November 2000 the new state of Chhattisgarh was formed from Madhya Pradesh's eastern provinces. Encompassing 56,510 square miles (146,361 square

Tuesday, September 21, 2004


In the theatricalists' view, to turn one's back on naturalism was to draw inspiration from the spirit

X Club

Ruth Barton, “ ‘Huxley, Lubbock, and Half a Dozen Others': Professionals and Gentlemen in the Formation of the X Club, 1851–1864,” Isis, 89(3):410–444 (September 1998), discusses the interests and purposes that brought the group together. Two articles survey the importance of the club: Roy MacLeod, “The X-Club: A Social Network of Science in Late-Victorian England,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 24(2):305–322 (April 1970), is the fuller account; J. Vernon Jensen, “The X Club: Fraternity of Victorian Scientists,” The British Journal for the History of Science, vol. 5, part 1, no. 17, pp. 63–72 (June 1970), is also useful. Ruth Barton, “ ‘An Influential Set of Chaps': The X-Club and Royal Society Politics 1864–85,” The British Journal for the History of Science, vol. 23, part 1, no. 76, pp. 53–81 (March 1990), details how club members achieved and used power within the Royal Society.

Saturday, September 18, 2004

Carlsberg Ridge

Submarine ridge of the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. The ridge is a portion of the Mid-Indian Ridge and extends from near Rodrigues Island to the Gulf of Aden, trending basically northwest to southeast. The ridge separates the Arabian Sea to the northeast from the Somali Basin to the southwest. The mean depth of the Carlsberg Ridge is about 9,600 feet (3,300 m) below sea level,

Computers, Control programs

An operating

Tabari, At-

In full  Abu Ja'far Muhammad Ibn Jarir At-tabari  Muslim scholar, author of enormous compendiums of early Islamic history and Qur'anic exegesis, who made a distinct contribution to the consolidation of Sunni thought during the 9th century. He condensed the vast wealth of exegetical and historical erudition of the preceding generations of Muslim scholars and laid the foundations

Thursday, September 16, 2004

China, Efforts to prevent civil war

Between May and September 1944, representatives of the government and the CCP carried on peace negotiations at Sian. The main issues were the disposition, size, and command of the Communist armies; the relationship between Communist-organized regional governments and the National Government; and problems of civil rights and legalization of the CCP and its activities


The political fortunes of the Wahhabi were immediately allied to those of the Sa'udi dynasty. By the end of the 18th century, they had brought all of Najd under their control, attacked Karbala', Iraq, a holy city of the Shi'ite branch

Wednesday, September 15, 2004

Pacific Mountain System

The geography and geology of the Pacific mountain system are treated in James G. Ashbaugh (ed.), The Pacific Northwest: Geographical Perspectives (1994), covering climate, vegetation, agriculture, and the economy; Stewart T. Schultz, The Northwest Coast (1990), a popular, comprehensive view of the people, economy, and landforms of the region; Paul E. Hammond, Guide to Geology of the Cascade Range (1988), a well-written work; John Eliot Allen, Marjorie Burns, and Sam C. Sargent, Cataclysms on the Columbia (1986), a fine overall exploration of the Missoula floods; and A. Jon Kimmerling and Philip L. Jackson, Atlas of the Pacific Northwest, 7th ed. (1985). A good explanation of how the ocean has shaped the Oregon coast, producing different landforms between California and Washington, may be found in Paul D. Komar, “Ocean Processes and Hazards Along the Oregon Coast,” Oregon Geology, 54(1):3–19 (January 1992).


Many examples of such hypocausts

Tuesday, September 14, 2004


Drawing of fluids into the mouth by creating a vacuum pressure in the oral cavity. Mammalian infants rely on this method of food ingestion until they are capable of eating more solid substances. A partial vacuum is created in the oral cavity by retracting the tongue to the back of the mouth. The rear portion of the tongue seals against the roof of the mouth, allowing

Monday, September 13, 2004

Wu Hsing

The Wu hsing cycle served as a broad explanatory

Sunday, September 12, 2004

Black Obelisk

Assyrian monument of King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858–824 BC). The most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, it is decorated with cuneiform inscriptions and reliefs recording military campaigns and other triumphs, including payment of tribute by King Jehu of Israel (reigned 842–815). The 6-foot (1.8-metre) black basalt piece was discovered in 1845 at ancient Kalhu (or Kalakh; biblical Calah;

Nemours, Henri I De Savoie, Duc De

Henri had helped the Roman Catholic Savoyards to capture Saluzzo (1588) and had fought for the Holy League in Daupiné, of which he became governor in 1591. Becoming duc de Nemours in 1595, he submitted the following year to King Henry IV. After taking part in campaigns at Rouen and Amiens, he retired to his

Saturday, September 11, 2004

Dewar, Sir James

Educated at the University of Edinburgh, Dewar became a professor at the University of Cambridge (1875) and at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, London

China, The international alliance against Japan

The United States had broken the Japanese diplomatic code, and by July 1941 it knew that Japan hoped to end the undeclared war in China and was preparing for a southward advance toward British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, planning first to occupy southern Indochina and Thailand even at the risk of war with Britain and the United States.

Fréchet, Maurice

Fréchet was professor of mechanics at the University of Poitiers (1910–19) before moving to the University of Strasbourg, where he was professor of higher calculus (1920–27). Joining the faculty of

Friday, September 10, 2004


Little is known with any certainty of Tarafah's life. He is traditionally acknowledged to have been an extraordinarily precocious poet,

Thursday, September 09, 2004


Also called  Spurred Snapdragon,   any member of a genus (Linaria) of nearly 100 herbaceous plants native to the North Temperate Zone, particularly the Mediterranean region. The common name refers to their flaxlike leaves; the flowers are two-lipped and spurred like snapdragons. Among the prominent members are common toadflax, or butter-and-eggs (L. vulgaris), with yellow and orange flower

Belaúnde Terry, Fernando

Belaúnde, a member of a distinguished aristocratic Peruvian family, studied architecture in the United States and France in 1924–35 and practiced briefly in Mexico before returning in 1936 to Peru, where he became a noted architect

Wednesday, September 08, 2004

Tibet, The people

The Tibetan and Burmese languages are related, although they are mutually unintelligible

Prichard, James Cowles

Prichard received his early education at Bristol and early acquired knowledge of European

Tuesday, September 07, 2004

Tibet, Agriculture and forestry

The staple crops are barley, wheat, and pulses; other important crops include millet, buckwheat, rgya-bra (a grain similar to buckwheat), beans, hemp, and mustard. Butter from the yak (large, long-haired ox) or the mdzo-mo (a crossbreed of the yak and the cow) is the main dairy product. The diet is supplemented by a variety of garden vegetables. Some rice is raised in the southeast.

Number Game, The brakeman, the fireman, and the engineer

The names, not necessarily respectively, of the brakeman, fireman, and engineer of a certain train were Smith, Jones, and Robinson. Three passengers on the train happened to have the same names and, in order to distinguish

Monday, September 06, 2004

Euclidean Geometry, Homotheties

If two nonconcentric circles have centres A, B and unequal radii r, s, there are points I, E with [AIB], AI | IB ~ AE | EB ~ r | s. In consequence, the

Antarctica, Technological advancements in exploration

The period between World Wars I and II marks the beginning of the mechanical, particularly the aerial, age of Antarctic exploration. Wartime developments in aircraft, aerial cameras, radios, and motor transport were adapted for polar operation. On Nov. 16, 1928, the first heavier-than-air flight in Antarctica was made by the Alaskan bush pilot C.B. Eielson and George Hubert

Sunday, September 05, 2004


Town, central Karnataka (formerly Mysore) state, southern India. A major road and rail junction, it supports a large-scale textile industry and is a trading centre for cotton and grain. The surrounding villages produce handloomed cotton and wool. Several colleges affiliated with the University of Mysore are situated at Davangere. Pop. (1981) 196,621.

Saturday, September 04, 2004

Fahrenheit Temperature Scale

Scale based on 32° for the freezing point of water and 212° for the boiling point of water, the interval between the two being divided into 180 equal parts. The 18th-century German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit originally took as the zero of his scale the temperature of an equal ice-salt mixture and selected the values of 30° and 90° for the freezing point of water and normal body


Inner borough of London, lying west of Lambeth and stretching for 5 miles (8 km) along the south bank of the River Thames. Wandsworth was established in 1965 by merging the former metropolitan borough of Battersea with approximately two-thirds of what then constituted Wandsworth (the remainder of which went to Lambeth). The present borough includes such districts as (roughly

Performing Arts, Classical.

Although the general atmosphere in the world of classical concerts and especially opera had been increasingly pessimistic in recent years, the approach of the millennium was bringing a sense of anticipation that could be described only as healthy. Although nothing specific had occurred to bring this about, there seemed to be a growing determination to make

Friday, September 03, 2004

Forbidden Lines

In astronomical spectroscopy, bright emission lines in the spectra of certain nebulae (H II regions), not observed in the laboratory spectra of the same gases, because on Earth the gases cannot be rarefied sufficiently. The term forbidden is misleading; a more accurate description would be “highly improbable.” The emissions result from electrons in long-lived orbits

Thursday, September 02, 2004


In Greek religion, the sacred grove of Zeus, or the sacred precinct in Olympia, Greece. It was an irregular quadrangular area more than 200 yards (183 m) on each side, and walled except to the north, where it was bounded by the Kronion (hill of Cronus). In it were the temples of Zeus and of Hera, his consort; the principal altars and votive offerings; the small treasuries built by various


City, seat (1846) of Jasper county, central Iowa, U.S., about 30 miles (50 km) east of Des Moines. It was settled in 1846 as the county seat and was named for John Newton, a soldier of the American Revolution. The railroad arrived in the 1860s and the community developed as a lumber-milling and agricultural trading centre. In 1898 the washing machine industry began there with the manufacture of ratchet-slat


In architecture, a triangular segment of a spherical surface, filling in the upper corners of a room, in order to form, at the top, a circular support for a dome. The challenge of supporting a dome over an enclosed square or polygonal space assumed growing importance to the Roman builders of the late empire. It remained for Byzantine architects, however, to recognize the

Wednesday, September 01, 2004

Robert Of Gloucester

Early Middle English chronicler known only through his connection with the work called “The Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester”—a vernacular history of England from its legendary founding by Brut (Brutus), great-grandson of Aeneas, to the year 1270. It was written, probably around 1300, in rhymed couplets. Two versions exist, and it is now believed that only one part, dealing with


City, seat (1808) of Madison county, northern Alabama, U.S. It is situated in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains near the Tennessee River, about 100 miles (160 km) north of Birmingham. It was originally called Twickenham by planter Leroy Pope for the home of his kinsman, Alexander Pope, the English poet. It was incorporated in 1811 and was renamed for John Hunt of Virginia, a Revolutionary