Tuesday, August 31, 2004

Tertiary Period, Subdivisions

The Tertiary faunas of western Europe that were known to 19th-century natural scientists consisted primarily of mollusks exhibiting varying degrees of similarity with modern types. At the same time, the science of stratigraphy was in its infancy, and the primary focus of its earliest practitioners was to use the newly discovered sequential progression of fossils

Bothwell, James Hepburn, 4th Earl Of, Duke Of Orkney And Shetland

The son of Patrick Hepburn, 3rd earl of Bothwell, Hepburn

Monday, August 30, 2004

John George I

An easygoing, indolent drunkard whose chief wish was “to drink his beer in peace,” he was a faithful adherent of the house of Habsburg. As a result of his inability

Hale, Edward Everett

A grandnephew of the Revolutionary hero Nathan Hale and a nephew of Edward Everett, the orator, Hale trained on his father's newspaper, the Boston Daily Advertiser, and turned early to writing. For 70 years newspaper articles, historical

Sunday, August 29, 2004

Habsburg, House Of

There have been several good studies of economic development during the Habsburg reign. David F. Good, The Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire, 1750–1914 (1984), is a solid survey. More advanced students may examine John Komlos, The Habsburg Monarchy as a Customs Union: Economic Development in Austria-Hungary in the Nineteenth Century (1983). Also worthy of inspection is John Komlos (ed.), Economic Development in the Habsburg Monarchy in the Nineteenth Century: Essays (1983). International relations and Habsburg foreign policy are the subjects of H.G. Koenigsberger, The Habsburgs and Europe, 1516–1660 (1971); F.R. Bridge, The Habsburg Monarchy Among the Great Powers, 1815–1918 (1990); and Samuel R. Williamson, Jr., Austria-Hungary and the Origins of the First World War (1991).

Gold Processing, Amalgamation

Amalgamation is accomplished by passing a slurry of

Saturday, August 28, 2004


City, Abitibi-Témiscamingue region, western Quebec province, Canada, on the western shore of Lake Osisko. It is located 315 miles (507 km) northwest of Montreal city. Rouyn and its twin city, Noranda, originated in the 1920s when gold and copper ores were first exploited in the area. Rouyn was named after the sieur de Rouyn, a hero of the Battle of Sainte-Foy (1760), and became the administrative,

Friday, August 27, 2004

French Literature, Religious authors

A new intellectual climate can be recognized from 1680 onward. An increased spiritual awareness resulting from Jansenist teaching, the preaching of Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet and others, and the influence of Mme de Maintenon at court, marked French cultural life with a new moral earnestness and devotion. The position of Bossuet is an ambivalent one. In spite of his outspoken


A son of Charlemagne's daughter Bertha and the renowned poet and imperial chancellor Angilbert, Nithard was reared at court. On the death of the

Bilandic, Michael Anthony

American politician and judge (b. Feb. 13, 1923, Chicago, Ill.—d. Jan. 15, 2002, Chicago), succeeded Richard J. Daley as mayor of Chicago and later served as chief justice of the Illinois Supreme Court. Bilandic had been a corporate lawyer for 28 years and was serving as chairman of Chicago's City Council finance committee by the time Mayor Daley died in his sixth term in office in December 1976. The City

Wednesday, August 25, 2004

Francis I

Also called  (until 1515) Francis Of Angoulême,  French  François D'angoulême  king of France (1515–47), the first of five monarchs of the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois. A Renaissance patron of the arts and scholarship, a humanist, and a knightly king, he waged campaigns in Italy (1515–16) and fought a series of wars with the Holy Roman Empire (1521–44).

Downy Mildew

Disease of plants, especially in cool humid regions, caused by several fungi, including species of Basidiophora, Bremia, Peronospora, Phytophthora, Plasmopara, Pseudoperonospora, and Sclerospora. White, gray, bluish, or violet downy patches of mildew form mostly on the undersides of leaves in damp weather. Pale-green to yellow or brown areas usually develop on the


Massif of the Himalayas in north-central Nepal, forming a ridge 30 miles (48 km) long between the basins of the Kali Gandak and Marsyandi rivers. It contains four main summits, two of which, Annapurna I (26,545 feet [8,091 m]) and II (26,040 feet [7,937 m]), stand at the western and eastern ends of the range, respectively; III (24,786 feet [7,555 m]) and IV (24,688 feet [7,525 m]) lie between them. Annapurna I is one of the world's highest peaks. Although

Bukit Fraser

Formerly  Frasers Hill,   mountain resort in the Main Range, West Malaysia (Malaya). It lies 40 miles (65 km) north of Kuala Lumpur, at an elevation of 4,280 feet (1,305 m). The site was named for Louis James Fraser, a trader and mule-train operator who disappeared in the area in 1916. The hill station, built on seven hills, was surveyed in 1919 and later developed by the Federated Malay States. The resort is reached via Kuala Kubu Baharu

Tuesday, August 24, 2004

Alba, Fernando álvarez De Toledo Y Pimentel, 3er Duque De

Alba was born into a rich family

Córdoba, Mosque-cathedral Of

The original structure was built by the Umayyad ruler 'Abd ar-Rahman I in 784–786 with extensions in the 9th and 10th centuries that doubled its size, ultimately making it one of the largest sacred buildings in the Islamic world. The ground plan of the completed building forms a vast rectangle

Monday, August 23, 2004

Affirmative Action

In the United States, an active effort to improve employment or educational opportunities for members of minority groups and for women. Affirmative action began as a government remedy to the effects of long-standing discrimination against such groups and has consisted of policies, programs, and procedures that give preferences to minorities and women in job

Glycogen Storage Disease

In the liver group, type O is set apart as

Sunday, August 22, 2004

South Africa

Officially  Republic of South Africa,  formerly  Union of South Africa,   the southernmost country on the African continent. It has an area of 470,693 square miles (1,219,090 square kilometres). It measures almost 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometres) from north to south, as well as from east to west. South Africa is bordered by Namibia to the northwest, by Botswana and Zimbabwe to the north, and by Mozambique and Swaziland to the northeast and east. Lesotho, an independent constitutional


The world's largest active volcanic mass, located on southeastern Hawaii Island, Hawaii, U.S. The central feature of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Kilauea (“Much Spreading”) is an elongated dome built of lava eruptions from a central crater and from lines of craters extending along east and southwest rifts, or fissures. The volcano's 4,090-foot (1,250-metre) summit has collapsed

Peter, Hugh

Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was ordained a priest in the Anglican Church in 1623. He went to London in 1626 and was appointed preacher at St. Sepulchre's, but his unorthodox views led to the suspension of his preaching license in 1627. He

Saturday, August 21, 2004


Any of several thousand species of insects belonging to the order Diptera and characterized by the use of only one pair of wings for flight and the reduction of the second pair of wings to knobs (called halteres) used for balance. The term fly is commonly used for almost any small flying insect. In entomology, however, the name refers specifically to the approximately

Friday, August 20, 2004

Daché, Lilly

Daché left school at the age of 14 and was apprenticed to her aunt, a milliner in Bordeaux, and later to the famous milliner Caroline Reboux of Paris. In 1924 Daché moved to New York City, where she worked as a salesclerk at Macy's

Botanical Garden

Also called  Botanic Garden,   originally, a collection of living plants designed chiefly to illustrate relationships within plant groups. In modern times, most botanical gardens are concerned primarily with exhibiting ornamental plants, insofar as possible in a scheme that emphasizes natural relationships. Thus, the two functions are blended: eye appeal and taxonomic order. Plants that

Thursday, August 19, 2004

Robert, Henry Martyn

A graduate (1857) of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., Robert was commissioned in the Corps of Engineers and retired (1901) with the rank of brigadier general. During the Civil War (1861–65) he constructed defenses for Washington,


Also called  Harnessed Antelope  (Tragelaphus scriptus), African antelope of the family Bovidae (order Artiodactyla), found in sub-Saharan forests and brush. It is nocturnal, shy, and usually solitary. The bushbuck stands about 1 m (39 inches) at the shoulder and ranges in colour from reddish brown to almost black, depending on the subspecies. Its markings vary but include white patches

Wednesday, August 18, 2004


Russian  Konstruktivizm  Russian artistic and architectural movement that was first influenced by Cubism and Futurism and is generally considered to have been initiated in 1913 with the “painting reliefs”—abstract geometric constructions—of Vladimir Tatlin. The expatriate Russian sculptors Antoine Pevsner and Naum Gabo joined Tatlin and his followers in Moscow, and upon publication

Tuesday, August 17, 2004

Januarius, Saint

Italian  San Gennaro   bishop of Benevento and patron saint of Naples. He is believed to have been martyred during the persecution under the Roman emperor Diocletian in 305. His fame rests on the relic, allegedly his blood, which is kept in a glass vial in the Naples Cathedral. Of solid substance, it liquefies 18 times each year. While no natural explanation has

Dubois, Jean-antoine

Ordained in 1792, he sailed to India under the Missions Étrangères. Despite his efforts in many parts of South India, his mission failed, and he returned to Paris (1823), convinced that the conversion of the Hindus was impossible. In Paris he became director


Any of several minerals that readily separate into long, flexible fibres. Chrysotile, the fibrous form of the mineral serpentine, is the best-known type and accounts for about 95 percent of all asbestos in commercial use. It is a hydrous magnesium silicate with the chemical composition of Mg3Si2O5(OH)4. The other types all belong to the amphibole group of minerals and include

Monday, August 16, 2004


On Dec. 10, 1999, Fernando de la Rúa assumed office as president of Argentina, marking the end of Carlos Saúl Menem's 10-year tenure. The Alliance (composed of de la Rúa's Radical Civic Union [UCR], the Front for a Country in Solidarity [Frepaso], and several smaller parties) held a plurality of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies but remained a minority in the Senate, where Menem's Justicialist

Aksakov, Konstantin Sergeyevich

The son of the novelist Sergey Timofeyevich Aksakov, he entered Moscow University, where he was influenced by the work of the German philosopher G.W. Hegel. From the mid-1830s Aksakov focused, along with Yury F. Samarin

S Doradus

Variable supergiant star in the Large Magellanic Cloud (the latter is one of two galactic companions to the Milky Way Galaxy). S Doradus (and the Large Magellanic Cloud) is visible to viewers in the Southern Hemisphere in the constellation Dorado. It is one of the most luminous stars known, radiating almost 1,000,000 times as much energy as the Sun.

Sunday, August 15, 2004

Insurance, Property covered

Homeowner's forms are written to cover damage to or loss of not only an owner's dwelling but also structures (such as garages and fences), trees and shrubs, personal property (excluding certain listed items), property away from the premises (such as boats), money and securities (subject to dollar limits), and losses due to forgery. They also cover removal of debris following

Friday, August 13, 2004

Epistemology, René Descartes

Both the rise of modern science and the rediscovery of Skepticism were important influences on René Descartes (1596–1650). While he believed that humans were capable of knowledge and certainty and that modern science was developing the superstructure of knowledge, he thought that Skepticism presented a legitimate challenge that needed an answer, one that only he could

Disorderly Conduct

Disorderly conduct may take the form of directly disturbing the peace, as when one intentionally disrupts a public meeting or awakens a sleeping community. Less directly, it includes


A liqueur (q.v.); though the term cordial was formerly used for only those liqueurs that were thought to have a tonic or stimulating quality due to the medicinal components of their flavourings, the terms cordial and liqueur are now used interchangeably.

Thursday, August 12, 2004


City, Saratov oblast (province), southwestern Russia, on the left bank of the Volga River. Founded in 1762, it long remained a small agricultural town. Its growth was greatly stimulated by the construction in 1967–70 of the Saratov hydroelectric station on the Volga. Balakovo is also the site of construction of a nuclear power station. A major chemical industry, developed in the 1960s

Drachmann, Holger Henrik Herholdt

The son of a physician, Drachmann studied painting and also began to write. A visit to London in 1871 awakened an interest in social problems, and after his return he joined the new radical movement of which Georg Brandes was the central


City, Alameda county, California, U.S., at the eastern terminus of the San Mateo Toll Bridge across San Francisco Bay. Named for William Hayward, a disappointed gold seeker who arrived in 1851 and opened a hotel, it was originally an Indian campsite on grazing lands of Mission San José (established 1797) and later part of the Guillermo Castro Rancho. Promoted by San Francisco businessmen,

Wednesday, August 11, 2004

Military Affairs

The movement against live-fire military training gained momentum during the year. President Bush announced that the U.S. Navy would cease using the island of Vieques, off the coast of Puerto Rico, for bombing exercises by 2003. A group of islanders had filed a $100 million lawsuit claiming that the bombing caused significant damage to the environment and public health. The

Tuesday, August 10, 2004

Beartooth Range

Segment of the northern Rocky Mountains in the United States, extending east-southeastward for 50 miles (80 km) from the Stillwater River, in southern Montana, to the Clarks Fork of the Yellowstone River, in northwestern Wyoming. Many peaks rise to more than 12,000 feet (3,700 m), including Granite Peak (12,799 feet [3,901 m]), the highest point in Montana. It was through these mountains that Chief Joseph

Monday, August 09, 2004

Llano Estacado

Also called  Staked Plains,   portion of the High Plains of the United States, along the Texas–New Mexico border. It covers an area of about 30,000 square miles (78,000 square km) and is bounded by the Canadian River valley (north), the “break of the plains” (east), the Edwards Plateau (south), and the Mescalero Ridge overlooking the Pecos River (west). Strikingly level in appearance and averaging 3,000–4,000 feet (900–1,200 m) above sea level, the

Floral Decoration

The term flower arrangement presupposes the word design. When flowers are placed in containers without thought of design, they remain a bunch of flowers, beautiful in themselves but not making up an arrangement. Line, form, colour, and texture are the basic design elements that are selected, then composed into a harmonious unit based on the principles of design—balance,

Adams, John

By then Adams's legal career was on the rise, and he had become a visible member of the resistance movement that questioned Parliament's right to tax the American colonies. In 1765 Adams published d, which justified opposition to the recently enacted Stamp Act—an effort to raise revenue by requiring all publications and legal documents to bear a stamp—by arguing that Parliament's intrusions into colonial affairs exposed the inherently coercive and corrupt character of English politics. Intensely combative, full of private doubts about his own capacities but never about his cause, Adams became a leading figure in the opposition to the Townshend Acts (1767), which imposed duties on imported commodities (i.e., glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea). Despite his hostility toward the British government, in 1770 Adams agreed to defend the British soldiers who had fired on a Boston crowd in what became known as the Boston Massacre. His insistence on upholding the legal rights of the soldiers, who in fact had been provoked, made him temporarily unpopular but also marked him as one of the most principled radicals in the burgeoning movement for American independence. He had a penchant for doing the right thing, most especially when it made him unpopular.

Sunday, August 08, 2004

Tolkien, J.r.r.

At age four Tolkien, with his mother and younger brother, settled near Birmingham, England, after his father, a bank manager, died in South Africa. In

Saturday, August 07, 2004

Farlovian Stage

Division of the Old Red Sandstone of the Devonian Period of western Europe (the Devonian Period began about 395,000,000 years ago and lasted about 50,000,000 years); the Farlovian Stage follows the Breconian and was named for exposures studied near the town of Farlow, in the English Midlands. Farlovian rocks consist of gray and yellow sandstones and shales that contain the primitive Upper

Fabricius, Johann Christian

Danish entomologist known for his extensive taxonomic research based upon the structure of insect mouthparts rather than upon their wings. He also advanced theoretical propositions that were progressive for his time, particularly his view that new species and varieties could arise through hybridization and by environmental influence


Mosaic formed of polygonal, coloured glazed tiles. Made up into geometric patterns, they have been used mostly for paving Spanish and Moorish patios but also for wall surfaces. The expansion of the lands under Christian control in Spain in the 13th century led to a mixture of Gothic and Islamic styles (known as the Mudéjar style), in which alicatado was much used

Friday, August 06, 2004


Any material that has an unusually high melting point and that maintains its structural properties at very high temperatures. Composed principally of ceramics, refractories are employed in great quantities in the metallurgical, glassmaking, and ceramics industries, where they are formed into a variety of shapes to line the interiors of furnaces, kilns, and other

France, History Of, Cultural and scientific attainments

The cultural climate of the later 19th century in France, as in the Atlantic world generally, was strongly marked by the current called positivism. The post-1848 generation looked with contempt on what it considered the excesses and the bad taste of the preceding Romantic era. A new interest in science and a new vogue of realism in literature and the arts prevailed during

Thursday, August 05, 2004


The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), sometimes called the ant bear, is the largest member of the anteater family and is best known from the tropical grasslands (Llanos) of Venezuela, where it is still common. It was once found in the lowland forests of Central America and still occurs in the Amazon Basin southward to the grasslands of Paraguay and Argentina.


The town has major rail and road connections and is an important agricultural trade centre. Silk weaving, rice

Wednesday, August 04, 2004

Heidelberg Romantics

Poets of the second phase of Romanticism in Germany, who were centred in Heidelberg about 1806. Their leaders were Clemens Brentano, Achim von Arnim, and Joseph von Görres; their brief-lived organ was the Zeitung für Einsiedler (1808). The most characteristic production of this school was the collection of folk songs entitled Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1805–08; “The Boy's Magic Horn”). Compared

Tuesday, August 03, 2004

Eight Masters Of Nanjing

Pinyin  Jinling Bajia , Wade-Giles romanization  Chin-ling Pa-chia  group of Chinese artists who lived and worked during the late 17th century in Nanjing (known as Jinling during the early Tang dynasty, c. 7th century). Although their group identity derives largely from the locale in which they worked, certain aesthetic similarities are discernible: their paintings, usually landscapes, are often uneven in quality and


Town and seat of Zala megye (county), western Hungary. It lies on the right bank of the Zala River. The town was of medieval origin and was a frontier fort in Hungary's wars with Turkey (16th–17th century). It was never occupied by the Turks. The town's notable buildings include the Göcsej Museum, with a rich historical and ethnographic collection; the twin-spired Baroque parish

Caragiale, Costache

Caragiale made his stage debut in 1835 in Bucharest, and in 1838 he organized a theatre of contemporary drama in Iasi (now Jassy). During the next 15 years he worked with regional theatres, notably those in Iasi, Botosani, and Craiova,

Monday, August 02, 2004


City, eastern Santa Catarina estado (“state”), southern Brazil. It lies at the mouth of the Itajaí River, at 20 feet (6 m) above sea level. Founded in the mid-19th century by German and Italian colonists, Itajaí is now the commercial centre and Atlantic port for an agricultural region drained by the Itajaí River and its tributaries. Wrapping paper and cotton textiles are the principal

Libya, Resources

Petroleum is Libya's most important mineral resource. First discovered in 1956 near the Algerian border, it has since been located mainly in the Surt Basin. The major oil fields are Zaltan, Amal, and Intisar A in the vicinity of Banghazi; the Dahra field is located near Misratah, and the Sarir field is near Darnah. Deposits have been located near Ghadamis on the western border, Murzuq in

Sunday, August 01, 2004

Min River

Wade–Giles romanization  Min Chiang,  Pinyin  Min Jiang,   river in Fukien sheng (province), China. The Min River and its various tributaries rise in the mountains of the Fukien–Kiangsi border area and flow to the sea across the grain of the southwest to northeast mountain ranges that cross the province; this flowage results in a trellislike drainage pattern, with lateral tributaries following the direction of the valleys.

Argus Panoptes

(Greek: “All Seeing”), figure in Greek legend described variously as the son of Inachus, Agenor, or Arestor or as an aboriginal hero (autochthon). His surname derives from the hundred eyes in his head or all over his body. Argus was appointed by the goddess Hera to watch the cow into which Io (Hera's priestess) had been transformed, but he was slain by Hermes. His eyes were transferred