Wednesday, June 30, 2004

Racan, Honorat De Bueil, Seigneur De

Racan became a page at the court of Henry IV and served in the army. His works include the celebrated Stances sur la retraite (c. 1618; “Stanzas on Retreat”), which reflects his love of nature and his reluctance to adhere to the poetic discipline of his master, François de Malherbe, whose

Ashur

The site was originally occupied about 2500 BC by a tribe that probably

Tuesday, June 29, 2004

Malatesta Family

Italian family that ruled Rimini, south of Ravenna, in the European Middle Ages and led the region's Guelf (papal) party. Originating as feudal lords of the Apennine hinterland, the family became powerful in Rimini in the 13th century, when Malatesta da Verucchio (d. 1312) expelled Ghibelline (imperial party) leaders in 1295 and became lord of the city. Possibly the best-known episode

Monday, June 28, 2004

Mozaffar Od-din Shah

The son of the Qajar ruler Naser od-Din Shah, Mozaffar od-Din was named crown prince and sent as governor to the northern province of Azerbaijan in 1861. He spent his 35 years as crown prince in the pursuit of pleasure; his relations with his father were frequently

Interior Design, Preliminary phases

The first step is the interview with the client. This is often a series of conversations and must eventually lead to a mutual agreement. Clients usually have a good idea of their needs and preferences, yet an experienced designer frequently sees some needs not envisioned by the client, and often he must reeducate the client's attitude about preferences. Obviously,

Germany, The consolidation of Brandenburg-Prussia and Austria

Against an overall tendency among the empire's constituent units to keep things as they were, the larger territories pursued an insistent policy of dynastic and personal aggrandizement. A number of factors favoured state building in the post-1618 era. General economic exhaustion made central direction of, and active intervention in, commerce and production seem

Sunday, June 27, 2004

Fischer, Hans

After receiving his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Marburg (1904) and his M.D. from the University of Munich (1908), Fischer worked as a physician

Saturday, June 26, 2004

Wantage

Town (“parish”), Vale of White Horse district, administrative county of Oxfordshire, historic county of Berkshire, England. It is an old market town and the birthplace of the Anglo-Saxon king Alfred the Great (871–899), whose statue stands in the marketplace. The town is a modest service centre in rural surroundings, but research establishments, including the atomic-energy research

Gable

The architectural treatment of a gable results from the effort to find an aesthetically pleasing solution to the problem of keeping water out of the intersection of walls and roof. This is accomplished either by

Bahnaric Languages

Branch of the Mon-Khmer family of languages, itself a part of the Austroasiatic stock. The Bahnaric branch is divided into West, Northwest, North, Central, and South subbranches. North Bahnaric languages, such as Sedang and Halang, are spoken primarily in central Vietnam. Central Bahnaric languages, such as Bahnar itself, are spoken in central Vietnam and adjacent parts

Friday, June 25, 2004

Gloucester

City, Essex county, northeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies on the southern shore of Cape Ann, facing Massachusetts Bay, about 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Boston. Gloucester Harbor was first visited and mapped by Samuel de Champlain in 1605–06, and the site (at Stage Fort Park) was settled by colonists from Dorchester, England, in 1623. Named for Gloucester, England, and incorporated as a town

Wyss, Johann Rudolf

Wyss became professor of philosophy at the academy at Bern in 1805 and later chief librarian of the municipal library. He was a collector of Swiss tales and folklore, published in Idyllen,

Thursday, June 24, 2004

Austral Islands

French  Îles Australes,  also called  Tubuai Islands,   southernmost archipelago of French Polynesia. Volcanic in origin, they are part of a vast submerged mountain chain (probably a southeasterly extension of the Cook Islands) in the central South Pacific. Scattered for 800 miles (1,300 km), they comprise five inhabited islands—Raivavae (6 square miles [16 square km]), Rapa (15 square miles [39 square km]), Rimatara, (3 square miles [8 square km]), Rurutu

Osiris

Also called  Usiri,   one of the most important gods of ancient Egypt. The origin of Osiris is obscure; he was a local god of Busiris, in Lower Egypt, and may have been a personification of chthonic (underworld) fertility, or possibly a deified hero. By about 2400 BC, however, Osiris clearly played a double role: he was both a god of fertility and the embodiment of the dead and resurrected king. This dual

Wednesday, June 23, 2004

Ryukyu Trench

Also called  Nansei-Shoto Trench  deep ocean trench running north along the eastern edge of the Ryukyu Islands (Japan) in the Philippine Sea, between Taiwan and the Japanese archipelago. The Ryukyu Trench reaches a maximum depth of 24,629 feet (7,507 m) about 60 miles (90 km) south of Okinawa. It is 1,398 miles (2,250 km) long, and its mean width is 37 miles (60 km). Its floor area extends over some 52,000 square miles (135,000 square km), mostly covered by red

Procopius

From 527 to 531 he was adviser (consilarius) to the military commander Belisarius on his first Persian campaign. In 533 and 534 he took part in an expedition against the Vandals and was in Africa until 536, when

Monday, June 21, 2004

Peter I

The son of Afonso IV and his consort Beatriz of Castile, Peter was married in 1336 to Constanza of Castile; but she died in 1345, and Peter is chiefly remembered for his tragic amour with Inês de Castro (q.v.), whose death he savagely avenged after his accession to the throne. Even so, some of his acts, designed to curb abuses and to enhance

Christ, Church Of

Any of several conservative Protestant churches, found chiefly in the United States. They are strongest in parts of the Midwest and in the western and southern parts of the United States. Each church is known locally as a Church of Christ, and its members as Christians; and each church is autonomous in government, with elders, deacons, and a minister or ministers. There

Korea, North

Officially  Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Korean  Choson Minjujuui In'min Konghwaguk  country in East Asia. It occupies the northern portion of the Korean peninsula, which juts out from the Asian mainland between the Sea of Japan (East Sea) and the Yellow Sea. The country is bordered by China and Russia to the north and by the Republic of Korea (South Korea) to the south. North Korea has an area of 47,399 square miles (122,762 square kilometres), occupying about 55 percent of the

Sunday, June 20, 2004

Hexachloroplatinic Acid

Also called  Chloroplatinic Acid,   complex compound formed by dissolving platinum metal in aqua regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids) or in hydrochloric acid that contains chlorine. It is crystallized from the solution in the form of reddish brown deliquescent (moisture-absorbing) crystals with specific gravity 2.43 and melting point 60° C (140° F). It is the starting material from which most platinum

Saturday, June 19, 2004

Ubayyid, Al-

Also spelled  el-Obeid  town, central Sudan. It lies on a sandy, scrub-covered plateau at an elevation of 1,869 feet (570 m). Founded by the Egyptians in 1821, the town was captured and largely destroyed by the Mahdist forces in 1882, but it was rebuilt after Kurdufan was federated with the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan in 1899. Al-Ubayyid is encircled by a forest reserve that tends to alleviate dust storms. Located on a spur of the

Marine Ecosystem, Geography, oceanography, and topography

The shape of the oceans and seas of the world has changed significantly throughout the past 600 million years. According to the theory of plate tectonics, the crust of the Earth is made up of many dynamic plates (see plate tectonics; and earth: The surface of the Earth as a mosaic of plates). There are two types of plates—oceanic and continental—which float on the surface of

Argentina, Trade

In the 19th century Argentine beef and grain helped feed Britain's rapidly rising urban population, and

Friday, June 18, 2004

Kwangsi, Education

A special educational feature in Kwangsi is the program for the education of national minorities. Minority languages are used for instruction in primary and middle schools, written scripts, such as that for Chuang, are developed for spoken minority languages wherever needed, minority teachers are trained, and government subsidies are provided for minority

Thursday, June 17, 2004

Thutmose Iv

Thutmose IV was the son of his predecessor's chief queen. As prince, he was assigned to the military operational base at Memphis, near modern Cairo, where he spent his leisure

Wednesday, June 16, 2004

Gafencu, Grigore

Educated at Geneva and Paris, Gafencu entered journalism after World War I. In 1924 he became editor and publisher of Argus, a leading economic periodical, and during the 1930s founded Timpul, which soon became

Quillen, Daniel Gray

Quillen was awarded the Fields Medal at the International

Tuesday, June 15, 2004

Loy, Mina

Loy began studying art in 1897 at St. John's Wood School in London. In 1899 she left England to study painting in Munich, Germany, returned to London in 1901, then traveled in 1902 to Paris, where she met and married fellow art

Monday, June 14, 2004

Earth, Paleontological research

Many paleontological observations are most easily explained by continental drift and/or polar wandering. For example, fossils of the freshwater reptile Mesosaurus, which lived 270,000,000 years ago, are found only in South America and Africa. The reptile's bone structure was such that it probably could not have swum across the Atlantic, but if South America and Africa had been

Hyvinkää

Swedish  Hyvinge,   city, Uudenmaan lääni (Uusimaa province), southern Finland, north of Helsinki. It is the centre of Finland's woollen industry, and is an important rail junction with direct lines to the ports of Hangö (Hanko, the southernmost in Finland), Helsinki, and Porvoo (Borgå). The city also has railway workshops, a granite quarry, and a rubber-products plant. Because of its fine climate

Port Augusta

City and former port, southeastern South Australia, at the head of Spencer Gulf. Founded in 1852 and named for the wife of Sir Henry Fox Young, an early colonial governor of South Australia, Port Augusta was incorporated as a town in 1875 and in 1878 was linked by rail to Adelaide, 191 miles (307 km) southeast; it became a city in 1963. Port Augusta is a terminus of both the Central and Trans-Australian

Sunday, June 13, 2004

Lusaka

City and capital of Zambia. It is situated in the south-central part of the country on a limestone plateau 4,198 feet (1,280 m) above sea level. In the 1890s the area in which Lusaka is situated was taken over by the British South Africa Company from the local chiefs in the course of the formation of Northern Rhodesia, with control passing to the British Colonial Office in 1924. Lusaka became

Umuahia

Town, capital of Abia state, southern Nigeria. It lies along the railroad from Port Harcourt to Enugu. It is an agricultural market centre and (since 1916) collecting point on the railway for the crops of the surrounding region: yams, cassava, corn (maize), taro, citrus fruits, and palm oil and kernels. The town has a palm-oil-processing plant and several breweries, and the National

Lat, Al-

North Arabian goddess of pre-Islamic times to whom a stone cube at at-Ta'if (near Mecca) was held sacred as part of her cult. Two other North Arabian goddesses, Manat (Fate) and al-'Uzza (Strong), were associated with al-Lat in the Qur'an (Islamic sacred scriptures). The Prophet Muhammad once recognized these three as goddesses, but a new revelation led him to abrogate the approving verses

Saturday, June 12, 2004

Biblical Literature, Instructions on the Tabernacle

Also interspersed in the story (chapters 25–31) are God's detailed instructions to Moses for building and furnishing the Tabernacle, the clothing and ordination of priests, and other liturgical matters. According to this segment (evidently P in inspiration), an elaborate structure is to be set up in the desert, in the centre of the camp, taken apart, transported, and assembled

Friday, June 11, 2004

Aufbau Principle

(from German Aufbauprinzip, “building-up principle”), rationalization of the distribution of electrons among energy levels in the ground (most stable) states of atoms. The principle, formulated by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr about 1920, is an application of the laws of quantum mechanics to the properties of electrons subject to the electric field created by the positive

Wolf, Rudolf

Wolf studied at the universities of Zürich, Vienna, and Berlin and in 1839 went to the University of Bern as a teacher of mathematics and physics; he became professor of astronomy there in 1844. In 1855 he accepted a professorship of astronomy at both the University of Zürich and the Federal

Thursday, June 10, 2004

Houston, University Of

State university system consisting of the main campus in Houston, Texas, U.S., the downtown campus in Houston, and branches at Clear Lake and Victoria. Additional locations at Cinco Ranch and Sugar Land provide upper-level undergraduate and graduate programs. The main campus consists of 12 colleges, including the Cullen College of Engineering, the Conrad N. Hilton College

Wednesday, June 09, 2004

Hanks, Tom

After a nomadic childhood, Hanks majored in drama at California State University and performed in summer stock

Tarascon

Town, Bouches-du-Rhône département, Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region, southeastern France, east of Nîmes. Situated on the left bank of the Rhône opposite Beaucaire, the town is associated with a legendary monster, La Tarasque, which was said to have ravaged the region until it was tamed by St. Marthe. Since the late 19th century it has also been associated with the mock-heroic

Tuesday, June 08, 2004

Gray Seal

(Halichoerus grypus), seal of the family Phocidae, found in North Atlantic waters along the coast of Newfoundland, the British Isles, and in the Baltic region. It is spotted gray and black and is characterized by a robust appearance and heavy head. The male grows to about 3 m (10 feet) in length and 300 kg (660 pounds) in weight; the female is smaller. Gregarious and rather

Francia, José Gaspar Rodríguez De

Francia was trained in theology but turned to the practice of law. In 1811 he became secretary to the junta that had overthrown Spanish rule and in 1813 served

Monday, June 07, 2004

Yogurt

Also spelled  Yoghurt, Yourt, or Yoghourt,   semifluid fermented milk food having a smooth texture and mildly sour flavour because of its lactic acid content. Yogurt may be made from the milk of cows, sheep, goats, or water buffalo. Cow's milk is used in the United States and north-central Europe; sheep's and goat's milk are preferred in Turkey and southeastern Europe; milk from the water buffalo is most commonly used

Corso, Gregory

Corso lived in an orphanage and with foster parents until he was 11, when his remarried father took him to live with him. A repeated runaway, he was placed in juvenile institutions. At 17 he was sentenced to three years in Clinton Prison in Dannemora, New

Wylie, Elinor

Elinor Hoyt grew up from age 12 in Washington, D.C., where her father served as assistant U.S. attorney general and later as solicitor general. In 1904 she graduated from

Sunday, June 06, 2004

Arévalo (bermejo), Juan José

Arévalo was educated at the University of Guatemala and the University of La Plata (1928–34) in Argentina, where he received a doctorate. After serving in the Guatemalan

Saturday, June 05, 2004

Aleksandrovsk-sakhalinsky

City, Sakhalin oblast (province), far-eastern Russia, on the western coast of Sakhalin Island. It was founded in 1881 as a centre for penal settlements. In 1890 the writer Anton Chekhov lived there while gathering material about convict life for his book Ostrov Sakhalin (“Sakhalin Island”). It became a city in 1926 and from 1932 to 1947 was the centre of an oblast. Pop. (1991 est.) 19,600.

Decapolis

League of 10 ancient Greek cities in eastern Palestine that was formed after the Roman conquest of Palestine in 63 BC, when Pompey the Great reorganized the Middle East to Rome's advantage and to his own. The name Decapolis also denotes the roughly contiguous territory formed by these cities, all but one of which lay east of the Jordan River. According to Pliny the Elder (Natural

Dehmelt, Hans Georg

German-born American physicist who shared one-half of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1989 with the German physicist Wolfgang Paul. (The other half of the prize was awarded to the American physicist Norman F. Ramsey.) Dehmelt received his share of the prize for his development of the Penning trap, an electromagnetic device that can hold small numbers

Friday, June 04, 2004

I-lan

Hsien (county), northeastern Taiwan, occupying an area of 825 square miles (2,137 square km) and bordered by the hsien of T'ai-pei (north), T'ao-yüan and Hsin-chu (west), and T'ai-chung and Hua-lien (south) and by the Philippine Sea (east). The Chung-yang Mountains extend over the southern part, and the Hsüeh-shan Mountains border the northwestern part of I-lan hsien. In the northeast, the I-lan River

Thursday, June 03, 2004

Annelid, Behaviour and associations.

Various polychaetes (for example, Syllis, Chaetopterus, Cirratulus, Terebella) are bioluminescent—that is, capable of producing light. The phenomenon occurs within the cells of Polynoe; the lower surfaces of some scale worms (Halosydna) have special photocells that produce light when stimulated. Odontosyllis light production is related to sexual maturity and

Biblical Literature, The Catholic Letters

As the history of the New Testament canon shows, the seven so-called Catholic Letters (i.e., James, I and II Peter, I, II, and III John, and Jude) were among the last of the literature to be settled on before the agreement of East and West in 367. During the 2nd and 3rd centuries, only I John and I Peter were universally recognized and, even after acceptance of all seven, their varying positions

Maurice, Furnley

At age 14 Wilmot worked in a Melbourne bookshop, rising to the position of manager. When the business was dissolved in 1929, he operated

Wednesday, June 02, 2004

Voznesensky, Andrey Andreyevich

Voznesensky spent his early childhood in the city of Vladimir. In 1941 he moved with his mother and sister to Kurgan, in the Ural Mountains, while his father assisted in the evacuation of factories from besieged Leningrad. The profound

Tuesday, June 01, 2004

Jacobsen, Arne

Jacobsen received his diploma in 1928 from the Copenhagen Academy

Awolowo, Obafemi

The son of a peasant, Awolowo first studied to be a teacher and later worked as a clerk, trader, and newspaper reporter while organizing trade unions in his

Barari Ghat, Battle Of

(Jan. 9, 1760), in Indian history, one of a series of Afghan victories over the Marathas in their war to gain control of the decaying Mughal Empire, which gave the British time in which to consolidate their power in Bengal. At the Barari Ghat (Ferry Station) of the Jumna (now Yamuna) River, 10 miles (16 km) north of Delhi, the Maratha chief Dattaji Sindhia, retreating from the Punjab before the Afghan

Zangwill, Israel

The son of eastern European immigrants, Zangwill grew up in London's East End and was educated at the Jews' Free School and at the University of London. His early writings were on popular subjects of his day, but with Children