Sunday, May 30, 2004

Harding, Saint Stephen

Educated at the Sherborne Abbey, Harding fled to Scotland sometime after the Norman Conquest. He studied in Paris, may have been a soldier, and made a pilgrimage to Rome. He joined the Cluniac abbey at Molesme,

Saturday, May 29, 2004

çatalhüyük

Major Neolithic site in the Middle East, located near Konya in south-central Turkey. Excavations (1961–65) by the British archaeologist James Mellaart have shown that Anatolia in Neolithic times was the centre of an advanced culture. The earliest building period at Çatalhüyük is tentatively dated to about 6700 BC and the latest to about 5650 BC. The inhabitants lived in rectangular mud-brick

Kettle Gong

Percussion instrument of the Bronze Age cultures of China, Indochina, and Indonesia. It was used mainly in rainmaking rites. Some kettle gongs from northern Vietnam are dated between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC. When played, they are suspended so that the striking surface (the head) is vertical.

Albany Congress

Conference in U.S. colonial history (June 19–July 11, 1754) at Albany, N.Y., which advocated a union of the British colonies in North America for their security and defense against the French, foreshadowing their later unification. The conference was convened by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois Confederacy, wavering between the French and the

Friday, May 28, 2004

Rainaldi, Carlo

After his father's death Rainaldi evolved a monumental

Thursday, May 27, 2004

Abbott, Lyman

Abbott left law practice to study theology and was ordained in 1860. After serving in two pastorates he became associate editor of Harper's Magazine and in 1870 editor of the Illustrated Christian Weekly. In 1876 he joined Henry Ward Beecher's Christian

Mercia

(from Old English Merce, “People of the Marches [or Boundaries]”), one of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England; it held a position of dominance for much of the period from the mid-7th to the early 9th century. Mercia originally comprised the border areas (modern Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and northern West Midlands and Warwickshire) that lay between the districts

Eckhart, Meister

Johannes Eckhart entered the Dominican order when he was 15 and studied in Cologne, perhaps under the Scholastic

Wednesday, May 26, 2004

Anole

(genus Anolis)  any of about 250 species of small, tree-dwelling lizard related to iguanas (family Iguanidae). Anoles occur throughout the warmer regions of North and South America and are abundant in the West Indies. Like the gecko, all anoles have enlarged finger and toe pads that are covered with microscopic hooks. These clinging pads, together with sharp claws, enable them to

Tuesday, May 25, 2004

Ivano-frankivsk

Russian  Ivano-frankovsk , formerly (until 1962)  StanisLawów , or  Stanislav  city and administrative centre of Ivano-Frankivsk oblast (province), western Ukraine. It lies along the Bystritsa River just above its confluence with the Dniester River. Founded in 1661 as the Polish town of Stanislawów, it occupied an important position on the northern approach to the Yablonitsky Pass over the Carpathians. From 1772 to 1919 it was held by Austria; in 1945 it was ceded

Ramiro Ii

Byname  Ramiro The Monk,  Spanish  Ramiro El Monje  king of Aragon from 1134 to 1137. He was the third son of Sancho V Ramirez. His elder brother, Alfonso I the Battler, left no issue and bequeathed his kingdom to the military orders. Ramiro, who had entered a monastery and was bishop-elect of Barbastro, renounced his vows, married, and received the crown. His daughter Petronila was betrothed to the son of Count Ramón Berenguer IV of

Arabia

Introductions to the area include Sheila A. Scoville (ed.), Gazetteer of Arabia: A Geographical and Tribal History of the Arabian Peninsula, vol. 1 (1979); Robert W. Stookey (ed.), The Arabian Peninsula: Zone of Ferment (1984); Hassan S. Haddad and Basheer K. Nijim (eds.), The Arab World: A Handbook (1978); Alois Musil, Northern Negd (1928, reprinted 1978), on the Najd region of Saudi Arabia; and Derek Hopwood (ed.), The Arabian Peninsula: Society and Politics (1972). See also M.W. Dempsey (comp.), Atlas of the Arab World (1983). Early explorations are chronicled in Robin Bidwell, Travellers in Arabia (1976); and Zahra Freeth and H.V.F. Winstone, Explorers of Arabia: From Renaissance to the End of the Victorian Era (1978). The people of the peninsula are described in Peter Mansfield, The New Arabians (1981); H.R.P. Dickson, The Arab of the Desert, 3rd ed. rev. and abridged by Robert Wilson and Zahra Freeth (1983); Max Freiherr von Oppenheim, Die Beduinen, 2 vol. (1939, reprinted 1983); and Walter Dostal, Die Beduinen in Südarabien (1967). Religious life and history are detailed in Gonzague Ryckmans, Les Religions arabes préislamiques, 2nd ed. (1951); J. Spencer Trimingham, Christianity Among the Arabs in Pre-Islamic Times (1979); and A.J. Arberry (ed.), Religion in the Middle East, vol. 2, Islam (1969, reprinted 1976). Articles on the geography, history, and religion of the Arabian Peninsula may be found in The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 4 vol. and a suppl. (1913–36), with a new edition in progress, beginning in 1960; and The Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam (1953, reprinted 1974), with articles taken from the larger work. Periodicals include Arabian Studies (annual); The Middle East and North Africa (annual); The Middle East Journal (quarterly); and Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies (annual).

Monday, May 24, 2004

Coihaique

City, capital of Aisén Region in southern archipelagic Chile, 50 mi (80 km) inland of Puerto Aisén and 25 mi (40 km) west of the Argentine border. Founded in 1912 by a small group of German colonists, it is situated among grassy steppes between the Coihaique and Simpson rivers, in a densely forested and extremely wet coastal region of Patagonian Chile (rainfall reaches 58 in. [1,485 mm] annually). Although

Wig

Manufactured head covering of real or artificial hair worn in the theatre, as personal adornment, disguise, or symbol of office, or for religious reasons. The wearing of wigs dates from the earliest recorded times; it is known, for example, that the ancient Egyptians shaved their heads and wore wigs to protect themselves from the sun and that the Assyrians, Phoenicians,

Sunday, May 23, 2004

Water Moss

Also called  Brook Moss, or Fountain Moss  (Fontinalis), genus of mosses belonging to the order Bryales, found in flowing freshwater streams and ponds in temperate regions. About 25 species are native to North America. A brook moss may have shoots 30 to 100 (rarely up to 200) cm (12 to 40 inches) long, and is usually attached to a stone or a tree root. The most common species, F. antipyretica, has long, slender branches covered with glossy,

Mollien, Gaspard-théodore

Mollien reached the French colonial station of Saint-Louis, Senegal, in 1817 and in January 1818 began his expedition to discover the sources of the Sénégal, Gambia,

Saturday, May 22, 2004

Armidale

City, northeastern New South Wales, Australia. It lies on the valley slopes of Dumaresq Creek in the New England Range. Founded in 1839 by G.J. Macdonald, commissioner of crown lands, and named for his father's Scottish baronial estate on the Isle of Skye, it developed a pastoral-agricultural economy. It has become a regional cultural centre with Anglican and Roman Catholic

Friday, May 21, 2004

Race, Hereditary statuses versus the rise of individualism

Inheritance as the basis of individual social position is an ancient tenet of human history, extending to some point after the beginnings of agriculture (about 8000–10,000 BCE). Expressions of it are found throughout the world in kinship-based societies where genealogical links determine an individual's status, rights, and obligations. Wills and testaments capture this principle,

Graded School

Also called  grade school  an elementary or secondary school in which the instructional program is divided into school years, known as grades or forms. At the end of each academic year, pupils move from one grade to the next higher in a group, with only an occasional outstanding achiever allowed to “skip” a grade, or advance beyond his fellows to a still higher grade. The practice of grading began

Han-chung

Pinyin  Hanzhong  city in southern Shensi Province (sheng), China. It is a county-level municipality (shih) and the administrative centre of Han-chung Prefecture (ti-ch'ü). Han-chung is situated in a long, narrow, and fertile basin along the Han Shui (river), between the Tsinling Shan (mountains) and Mi-ts'ang Shan. To the north one of the few routes across the Tsinling Shan joins it to Pao-chi in Shensi,

Thursday, May 20, 2004

Piero Della Francesca

Painter whose serene, disciplined exploration of perspective had little influence on his contemporaries but came to be recognized in the 20th century as a major contribution to the Italian Renaissance. The fresco cycle “The Legend of the True Cross” (1452–66) and the diptych portrait of Federico

Wednesday, May 19, 2004

Yamm

Also spelled  Yam  ancient West Semitic deity who ruled the oceans, rivers, lakes, and underground springs. He also played an important role in the Baal myths recorded on tablets uncovered at Ugarit, which say that at the beginning of time Yamm was awarded the divine kingship by El, the chief god of the pantheon. One day, Yamm's messengers requested that the gods surrender Baal to be a bond

Arts, East Asian, Architecture

While little remains except walls and tombs, much can be learned about Han architecture from historical writings and long descriptive poems, fu. This was an era of great palace buildings. The first Ch'in emperor undertook the building of a vast palace, the A-fang or O-pang, whose main hall was intended to accommodate 10,000 guests in its upper story. He also copied the palaces

Kornbluth, C.m.

Kornbluth published science-fiction stories as a teenager. Called the Futurians, he and other young writers, including Isaac Asimov and Frederik Pohl (his frequent coauthor), composed and edited most of the tales in such sci-fi magazines as Astonishing

Tuesday, May 18, 2004

Academy

The designation academy, as a school of philosophy, is usually applied not to Plato's immediate

Franche-comté

Région compassing the eastern French départements of Jura, Doubs, Haute-Saône, and the Territoire de Belfort. The capital is Besançon. The region has an area of 6,256 square miles (16,202 square km) and is bounded by the départements of Ain to the south, Saône-et-Loire, Côte-d'Or, and Haute-Marne to the west, and Vosges and Haut-Rhin to the north. Switzerland lies to the east. Franche-Comté

Monday, May 17, 2004

Jhalawar

Town, administrative headquarters of Jhalawar district, Rajasthan state, northwestern India. The town—sometimes called Jhalrapatan, Jhalrapatan Chhaoni (cantonment), or Brijnagar—is a major road junction and agricultural market centre. The old town of Jhalrapatan (Patan) was founded in 1796. The new town, including the palace and cantonment, lies just to the north. Jhalawar, the capital

Qatar, Government

The emir's power is constrained

Sunday, May 16, 2004

Olaf V

Olaf was educated at the Norwegian military academy and at the University of Oxford in England. As crown prince he was a celebrated athlete and sportsman, excelling at ski jumping and yachting. He won a gold medal in yachting at the 1928 Olympic Games

Saturday, May 15, 2004

Reproductive System, Animal, Annelids and mollusks

Annelids have a well-developed body cavity (coelom), a part of the lining of which gives rise to gonads. In some annelids, gonads occur in several successive body segments. This is true, for example, in polychaetes, most of which are dioecious. Testes and ovaries usually develop, though not invariably, in many body segments; and the sperm and eggs, often in enormous numbers,

Janácek, Leoš

Janácek was a choirboy at Brno and studied at the Prague, Leipzig, and Vienna conservatories. In 1881 he founded a college of organists at Brno, which he directed until 1920. He directed the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra from 1881 to 1888 and in

Friday, May 14, 2004

Diet

Under the Meiji Constitution of 1889, the Imperial Diet was established on the basis of two houses with coequal powers. The upper house, the House of Peers (Kizokuin), was almost wholly appointive. Initially, its membership was slightly less than 300, but it was subsequently increased to approximately 400. The peers were intended to represent

Thursday, May 13, 2004

Lopez, Barry

After graduating from the University of Notre Dame (B.A., 1966; M.A.T., 1968), Lopez briefly

Mufti

Arabic  Mufti,   an Islamic legal authority who gives a formal legal opinion (fatwa) in answer to an inquiry by a private individual or judge. A fatwa usually requires knowledge of the Qur'an and Hadith (narratives concerning the Prophet's life and sayings), as well as knowledge of exegesis and collected precedents, and might be a pronouncement on some problematic legal matter. Under the Ottoman

Osage Orange

Also called  Bowwood,  French  Bois D'arc  (Maclura pomifera), thorny tree with large, yellow-green, wrinkled fruit and a milky sap that can produce dermatitis in humans. It is the only species of its genus in the mulberry family (Moraceae). It is native to the south-central United States but has been planted extensively farther north in the Mississippi River valley and at points east of

Wednesday, May 12, 2004

Parade

A type of pageant (q.v.) whose main feature is a public procession.

Arévalo (bermejo), Juan José

Arévalo was educated at the University of Guatemala and the University of La Plata (1928–34) in Argentina, where he received a doctorate. After serving in the Guatemalan

Tuesday, May 11, 2004

Sculpture, Western, Georgia

A distinct Georgian sculptural tradition did not emerge until the advent of Christianity, which stimulated a demand for a large number of carved stone reliefs. The earliest of these were based on Early Christian models. In the 8th and 9th centuries the high-relief figures of Early Christian art gave way to figures rendered in wholly linear fashion. In the 10th and 11th centuries

Monday, May 10, 2004

Gulbransson, Olaf

Gulbransson studied at the Royal Norwegian Drawing School and worked for several Norwegian newspapers. After a visit to Paris in 1900, he returned to Oslo,

Marfan's Syndrome

Also called  arachnodactyly  rare hereditary disorder of connective-tissue development in humans that affects several body systems, most notably the skeleton, heart, and eye. Affected individuals are tall, their limbs are long and thin, their fingers are long and may be described as spider-like, and there is a tendency to double-jointedness. The lens of the eye is dislocated (a diagnostic sign), and

Sunday, May 09, 2004

Davel, Jean-abraham-daniel

Annexed by Bern in 1536, the Vaud had long chafed under the administration of Bernese bailiffs when in 1723 Davel became the focus of discontent. Claiming divine inspiration and envisioning a Christian revival, he led

Allen, Fred

While working as a stack boy in the Boston Public Library, the young Sullivan came across a book on juggling from which he picked up that craft. He began juggling on amateur entertainment circuits and

Saturday, May 08, 2004

Csokonai Vitéz, Mihály

Csokonai's early sympathies with the revolutionary trends of his age made life difficult for him in the wave of reaction that accompanied Napoleon's invasion of Europe. Dismissed after a brief career as an assistant master at the Calvinist college in Debrecen, he became a wandering

Friday, May 07, 2004

Gulbransson, Olaf

French  Cour internationale de Justice,  byname  World Court   the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). The idea for the creation of an international court to arbitrate international disputes first arose during the various conferences that produced the Hague Conventions in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The body subsequently established, the Permanent Court of Arbitration, was the precursor of the Permanent

Azide

Any of a class of chemical compounds containing three nitrogen atoms as a group, represented as (-N3). Azides are considered as derived from hydrazoic acid (HN3), an inorganic salt such as sodium azide (NaN3), or an organic derivative in which the hydrogen atom of hydrazoic acid is replaced by a hydrocarbon group as in alkyl or aryl azide (RN3), or by an acyl (carboxylic acid) group

Allegany

County, western Maryland, U.S. It consists of an irregular neck of land between Pennsylvania to the north and West Virginia to the south (the North Branch Potomac River constituting the border with West Virginia). The county rests on part of the Allegheny Plateau and includes Rocky Gap State Park, Green Ridge State Forest, and the scenic gorge of Cumberland Narrows (1,000 feet

Thursday, May 06, 2004

Beardworm

Also called  Pogonophoran,   any of a group of marine invertebrates constituting the phylum Pogonophora. Pogonophorans live a sedentary life in long, protective tubes on seafloors throughout the world. The common name beardworm refers to the beardlike mass of pinnate (feather-like) tentacles borne at the anterior end of many species. An intestine, which forms in embryos, disappears as development

Raynouard, François-juste-marie

Trained as a lawyer, Raynouard was elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1791. In 1793 he was imprisoned on political grounds but was released in 1794 after the fall of Robespierre. His first play, Caton d'Utique, was published

Argentina, Other recreation

A majority of Argentines enjoy viewing televised sporting events as well as dramas, game shows, and other television programs, including North American comedies dubbed into Spanish. Telenovelas (soap operas) made in Argentina and other Latin American countries are particularly popular, and many locally produced serials are exported throughout the region. Movies,

Wednesday, May 05, 2004

Triclinic System

One of the structural categories to which crystalline solids can be assigned. Crystals in this system are referred to three axes of unequal lengths that are inclined at angles less than 90° to one another. If the atoms or atom groups in the solid are represented by points and the points are connected, the resulting lattice will consist of an orderly stacking of blocks,

Monday, May 03, 2004

Sea Spider

Most pycnogonids have four pairs of long legs attached to four trunk segments. The body size ranges from 3 millimetres ( 1/8 inch) in

Orange

In the early 1800s the discovery of mineral springs in what is now West Orange

Raynouard, François-juste-marie

Founded in New York City in 1976 as little more than a social club, the charter organization of the AWU grew into a major clearinghouse and support agency for Asian and Pacific American women in the United States. Having absorbed several scattered

Constantine

Also called (after 1981)  Qacentina , Arabic  Blad el-Hawa , Phoenician  Cirta  city, northeast Algeria. A natural fortress, the city occupies a rocky, diamond-shaped plateau that is surrounded, except at the southwest, by a precipitous gorge through the eastern side of which flows the Rhumel River. The plateau is 2,130 feet (650 m) above sea level and from 500 to 1,000 feet (150 to 300 m) above the riverbed in the gorge. The cliffs of the gorge, at its narrowest, are 15 feet (4.5 m) apart and

Sunday, May 02, 2004

Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus Domitius

With his father, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, he had been a member of the party that in 49 made an unsuccessful attempt to prevent Caesar from seizing power. After the assassination of Caesar in 44 by a group led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius

Austin College

Private, coeducational institution of higher education in Sherman, Texas, U.S. Austin, a liberal arts college, is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). The college offers bachelor's degree programs in humanities, math and science, and social sciences, as well as interdisciplinary and area studies programs. A master's degree in education is also available. Students

Saturday, May 01, 2004

Great Mogul Diamond

The largest diamond ever found in India. It was discovered as a 787-carat rough stone in the Golconda mines in 1650 and subsequently was cut by the Venetian lapidary Hortentio Borgis. The French jewel trader Jean-Baptiste Tavernier described it in 1665 as a high-crowned rose-cut stone with a flaw at the bottom and a small speck within. Its present location is unknown, and some believe

Madhubuti, Haki R.

Lee attended several colleges in Chicago and graduate school at the University of Iowa (M.F.A., 1984); he also served in the U.S. Army (1960–63). He taught at various colleges and universities, in 1984 becoming a faculty member at Chicago State University. His poetry, which began to appear in the 1960s, was written in black dialect