Friday, April 30, 2004

Balaghat Range

Series of hills in western Maharashtra state, western India. Originating in the Western Ghats at the Harishchandra Range, the range extends southeastward for about 200 miles (320 km) to the border of Maharashtra and Karnataka states. Its width varies from 3 to 6 miles (5 to 9 km). Higher in the west, the Balaghat hills have elevations of 1,800–2,700 feet (550–825 m), gradually diminishing eastward until they end at

Thursday, April 29, 2004

Alaska, Early settlement

The first European settlement was established in 1784 by Russians at Three Saints Bay, near present-day Kodiak. It served as Alaska's capital until 1806, when the Russian-American Company, organized in 1799 under charter from the emperor Paul I, moved its headquarters to richer sea otter grounds in the Alexander Archipelago at Sitka. The company governed Alaska until its purchase


In early U.S. history, a loose political coalition of popular politicians such as Patrick Henry who unsuccessfully opposed the strong central government envisioned in the U.S. Constitution of 1787 and whose agitations led to the addition of a Bill of Rights. The first in the long line of states'-rights advocates, they feared the authority of a single national government,

Aleut Language

Aleut  Unangam Tunuu,   one of two branches of the Eskimo-Aleut languages (q.v.). Two mutually intelligible dialects survive, Eastern Aleut and Atkan Aleut. A third dialect, Attu, now extinct in Alaska, survives on Bering Island (one of the Komandor Islands) in a creolized form that incorporates Russian verbal inflections. Aleut is spoken from the Alaska Peninsula through Umnak Island and on

Wednesday, April 28, 2004

Interior Design, Other components

The detailing referred to in connection with the handling of doors is one of the most important factors in interior design. Every architectural component must be detailed well. Poor details make for poor design. The meaning of detailing in a design sense is more than the graphic explanation of certain components on a drawing. It means the way materials are put together,

Avoidance Behaviour

Type of activity seen in animals exposed to adverse stimuli, in which the tendency to act defensively is stronger than the tendency to attack. The underlying implication that a single neural mechanism is involved (such as a specific part of the brain, which, under electrical stimulation, seems to inflict punishment) remains only a hypothesis. Clearly, the same kinds

Tuesday, April 27, 2004


Flowering plant of the family Amaryllidaceae (q.v.).

Laidoner, Johan

Educated in Russia for a military career, Laidoner earned the rank of lieutenant colonel in Russian service. He served in World War I (1914–18) as an intelligence

Monday, April 26, 2004

Switzerland, Dynastic Switzerland

The Swiss area became united again in the 11th century under a German-dominated Holy Roman Empire; however, the gradual decline of the empire gave rise to a loose confederation of quasi-independent states, enabling feudal dynasties of the Zähringen, Savoy, Kyburg, and Habsburg families to emerge as territorial powers by the beginning of the 13th century. During the 11th


Port town and naval station, Pontevedra provincia, in the comunidad autónoma (“autonomous community”) of Galicia, northwestern Spain. Vigo lies along the southeastern shore of the Vigo Inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Pontevedra city. It was attacked by the English admiral Sir Francis Drake in 1585 and 1589. In 1702 a British-Dutch fleet under Sir George Rooke and James Butler,

Molasses Act

(1733), in American colonial history, a British law that imposed a tax on molasses, sugar, and rum imported from non-British foreign colonies into the North American colonies. The act specifically aimed at reserving a practical monopoly of the American sugar market to British West Indies sugarcane growers, who otherwise could not compete successfully with French and

Sunday, April 25, 2004


Town, Gard département, Languedoc-Roussillon région, southeastern France, southwest of Nîmes, on the Canal du Rhône à Sète, with its own 3.5-mile (6-km) canal to the Gulf of Lion. Its name comes from aquae mortuae, the “dead waters” of the surrounding saline delta marshland. Built by Louis IX as the embarkation port for his two Crusades (seventh, 1248; eighth, 1270), the little town is enclosed

Saturday, April 24, 2004

Arts, Islamic, Arabic: language of the Qur'an

The area of Islamic culture extends from western Africa to Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines; but its heartland is Arabia, and the prime importance and special authority of the Arabic language was to remain largely unquestioned after the spread of Islam. The Arabic poetry of pre-Islamic Arabia was regarded for centuries afterward as the standard model for all

Argentina, Demographic trends

The population of Argentina has increased 20-fold since 1869, when 1.8 million people were recorded there by the first census. Population growth was rapid through the early part of the 20th century, but it declined thereafter as both the birth rate and immigration began to drop off; the proportion of young people also declined. Argentina's rates of birth and population growth

Friday, April 23, 2004

Fruit Processing

Fruit is sometimes defined as the product of growth from an angiosperm, or flowering plant. From a purely botanical point of view, the fruit may be only the fleshy growth that arises from the ovary of a flower and may not necessarily include any other structures. From the consumer's or food processor's point of view, however,

Zanardelli, Giuseppe

A combatant in the volunteer corps during the war of 1848, he returned to Brescia

Thursday, April 22, 2004

Mckenzie, Robert (trelford)

Canadian-born British political scientist and television commentator on electoral politics. In the latter role, McKenzie popularized to the British public the word psephology (the study of votes) and the idea of “swing” votes, using a device he called a “swingometer” to show the shifting fortunes of the major parties during the announcement

Fiedler, Leslie A.

Fiedler attended the University of Wisconsin (M.A., 1939; Ph.D., 1941), and, after service in the U.S. Naval Reserve from 1942 to 1946, he did further research at Harvard University. Thereafter he taught at many universities both

Wednesday, April 21, 2004


Middle American Indians of southwestern Oaxaca state in southern Mexico. The Chatino language is closely related to the neighbouring Zapotec language, and there are many cultural similarities between the two groups. The Chatino, who numbered about 37,000 in the late 20th century, live in a mountainous region. They are agricultural, raising a staple crop of corn (maize), as


Also spelled  Kamensk-ural'skij,   city, Sverdlovsk oblast (province), western Russia, at the confluence of the Kamenka and Iset rivers. The first state iron foundry in the Urals, Kamensky Zavod, was established there in 1700–01. The modern city specializes in the production of aluminum and aluminum castings and sheets, using bauxite from Severouralsk. Steel tubes and a range of electrical machinery also are

Tuesday, April 20, 2004

Maastricht Treaty

Formally  Treaty on European Union  international agreement approved by the heads of government of the states of the European Community (EC) in Maastricht, Netherlands, in December 1991. Ratified by all EC member states (voters in Denmark rejected the original treaty but later approved a slightly modified version), the treaty was signed on February 7, 1992, and entered into force on November 1, 1993. The treaty established

Monday, April 19, 2004


Elaborate verse form employed by medieval Provençal and Italian, and occasional modern, poets. It consists, in its pure medieval form, of six stanzas of blank verse, each of six lines—hence the name. The final words of the first stanza appear in varied order in the other five, the order used by the Provençals being: abcdef, faebdc, cfdabe, ecbfad, deacfb, bdfeca. Following these

Holiness Movement

The movement

Charles I

Charles was the second surviving son of James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark. He was a sickly child, and, when his father became king of England in March 1603, he was temporarily

Saturday, April 17, 2004


Formerly  Wankie,   town, western Zimbabwe. It was founded about 1900 after the discovery of coal in the vicinity and was named for a local chief, Whanga, who was the dynastic head of the Abananza people. By 1908 a brickyard was established, utilizing local clays, and the production of coke began in 1913. The town is located on road and rail lines to Bulawayo and Zambia, and the coal-mining industry remains

Nabataean Alphabet

Writing system used between approximately 150 BC and AD 150 in the Nabataean kingdom of Petra in the Arabian Peninsula. Used by the Nabataeans to write the Aramaic language, this alphabet was related to the Aramaic alphabet, one of the major Semitic scripts. The Nabataean script gave rise to the neo-Sinaitic alphabet, the ancestor of the Arabic alphabet. Like its Semitic precursors,


The federal republic of Argentina occupies the eastern section of the Southern Cone of South America, along the Atlantic Ocean. Area: 2,780,400 sq km (1,073,518 sq mi). Pop. (1993 est.): 33,507,000. Cap.: Buenos Aires. Monetary unit: peso, with (Oct. 4, 1993) an official rate of 1 peso to U.S. $1 (1.52 pesos = £ 1 sterling). President in 1993, Carlos Saúl Menem.

Marsa Al-burayqah

Also spelled  Marsa El-brega,   Mediterranean port on the Gulf of Sidra, northeastern Libya. The site, which was located by a small fishing village destroyed during World War II, contained nothing but land mines when it was chosen as the terminal for Libya's first oil pipeline, running from Zaltan, 105 miles (169 km) south. After 1960 a new port and town were built from prefabricated materials, including breakwaters

Friday, April 16, 2004


District (established 1973), formerly in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. It covers 434 square miles (1,125 square km) of rolling lowlands and hills and is bordered by the districts of Strabane to the north, Magherafelt and Cookstown to the east, Dungannon to the south, and Fermanagh to the west. Northern and eastern Omagh district includes relatively unproductive moorlands and

Steel, Annealing

To make steel ductile for subsequent forming operations, an annealing treatment is applied. In annealing, the steel is usually held for several hours at several degrees below Ar1 (shown by the P-S-K line in the figure) and then slowly cooled. This precipitates and coagulates the carbides and results in large ferrite crystals. Cold-formed steel is usually annealed and

Thursday, April 15, 2004


Trade name for an insecticide composed of the most toxic of the isomeric forms of benzene hexachloride (q.v.).

Murakami Haruki

As a boy, Murakami rebelled against the study of Japanese literature, instead reading American paperbacks. This early and sustained interest is evident in the structure and nontraditional style of his own novels. His first internationally

Wednesday, April 14, 2004

Bajer, Fredrik

Bajer entered the Danish army but was discharged when it was reduced after the 1864 war with Prussia. He then started working for the emancipation of women, for the peace movement, and for Scandinavian cooperation. He was a founder of the

Kaministiquia River

Also spelled  Kaministikwia,  river, western Ontario, Can. It rises in Dog Lake and, after a crooked course of 60 miles (95 km), empties into Thunder Bay, an arm of Lake Superior. It has many rapids and cataracts, notably the wide Kakabeka Falls (154 feet [47 m] high), site of a major hydroelectric station. The river divides into three channels as it enters Thunder Bay, providing deepwater shipping docks at the city of Thunder


Also spelled  Melitopol  ', city, Zaporozhye oblast (province), Ukraine, on the Molochnaya River. The settlement of Novo-Aleksandrovka grew up in the late 18th century, and in 1841 it became the city of Melitopol. The centre of a fruit-growing area, modern Melitopol has engineering plants and light industries. Pop. (1993 est.) 178,000.

Tuesday, April 13, 2004

Rogers, Samuel

Rogers attained eminence with the publication of his discursive poem The Pleasures of Memory (1792). On his father's death (1793) he inherited a banking firm, and for the next half century he maintained an influential position as a leading figure

Monday, April 12, 2004

Smith, Michael

British-born Canadian biochemist who won (with Kary B. Mullis) the 1993 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his development of a technique called oligonucleotide-based site-directed mutagenesis, which enabled researchers to introduce specific mutations into genes and, thus, to the proteins that they encode.

Jansch, Bert

Influenced by American folk-blues performers such as Big Bill Broonzy, Jansch was part of the folk scene in Edinburgh,


Also spelled  Atbara  town, northeastern Sudan. It lies on the right (east) bank of the Nile River at the mouth of the seasonal Atbara River. The junction of two major road and railway lines to Khartoum, it has become an important commercial and agricultural centre. The Sudan government railways' administrative headquarters and workshops are located there, and the town also has an airport.

Sunday, April 11, 2004

Earth Sciences

The origins of the Earth sciences lie in the myths and legends of the distant past. The creation story, which can be traced to a Babylonian epic of the 22nd century BC and which is told in the first chapter of Genesis, has proved most influential. The story is cast in the form of Earth history and thus was readily accepted as an embodiment of scientific as well as of theological

Saturday, April 10, 2004


The first regionwide Asia-Pacific multilateral forum for official consultations on peace and security issues. An outgrowth of the annual ministerial-level meeting of members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the states serving as ASEAN's “dialogue partners,” the ARF provides a setting for discussion and diplomacy and the development of

Friday, April 09, 2004

Aerospace Industry, Verification

Critical for all aerospace vehicles, once they are assembled, are the methods for ensuring the quality of the manufacturing and assembly processes. In the case of aircraft this involves extensive inspections of structural and mechanical items, including functional verification of equipment such as control surfaces and systems, landing-gear operation, avionics

Anthony Of Bourbon

Son of Charles of Bourbon, duke of Vendôme, he married (1548) Jeanne d'Albret, daughter of Henry II, king of Navarre; as sole heir, she brought her husband the title of king of Navarre. Anthony was involved with his brother, Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, in the Huguenot conspiracy of Amboise,

D Region

Lowest ionospheric region, at altitudes of about 70 to 90 km (40 to 55 miles). The D region differs from the other ionospheric regions (denoted E and F) in that its free electrons almost totally disappear during the night because they recombine with oxygen ions to form oxygen molecules. Hence, radio waves cannot then be reflected from it but pass through to the strongly reflecting

Thursday, April 08, 2004

Abbott, Diane

In full  Diane Julie Abbott  British politician, the first woman of African descent elected to the House of Commons. Abbott's parents, originally from Jamaica, immigrated to the United Kingdom in the early 1950s. She was educated at Harrow County Grammar School for Girls and received a degree in history from the University of Cambridge in 1973. Abbott worked as a civil servant

Wednesday, April 07, 2004

Trade, Board Of

Also called  Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations  English governmental advisory body established by William III in May 1696 to replace the Lords of Trade (1675) in the supervision of colonial affairs. The board was to examine colonial legislation and to recommend disallowance of those laws that conflicted with imperial trade policies, to nominate governors and other high officials for royal colonies and to write the


(Hebrew: “Holy Things”), the fifth of the six major divisions, or orders (sedarim), of the Mishna (codification of Jewish oral laws), which was given its final form early in the 3rd century AD by Judah ha-Nasi. Qodashim deals primarily with rites and sacrifices that took place in the Temple of Jerusalem, which was destroyed in AD 70 by Roman legions and never rebuilt. The 11 tractates (treatises)

A Lo Divino

In Spanish literature, the recasting of a secular work as a religious work, or, more generally, a treatment of a secular theme in religious terms through the use of allegory, symbolism, and metaphor. Adaptations a lo divino were popular during the Golden Age of Spanish literature during the 16th and 17th centuries.

Tuesday, April 06, 2004

Abacha, Sani

Nigerian military leader (b. Sept. 20, 1943, Kano, Nigeria--d. June 8, 1998, Abuja, Nigeria), participated in the overthrow of three successive military governments before gaining control of the country himself in 1993. Having entered the army at age 18, Abacha was educated at military schools in Nigeria, England, and the United States and rose to brigadier by 1980. He participated in the ouster of Pres.

Wind Instrument, Reedpipes

Egypt also made clarinets, instruments composed of two canes with three sides of a rectangle cut obliquely in the upper end of the two single reeds. The term idioglottic is used to describe a reed cut from the tube itself. From four to six equidistant finger holes are cut in each cane, and blowing with the entire reed engulfed in the mouth cavity produces a pungent, tremulous

Monday, April 05, 2004

Good-reasons Theory

In American and British metaethics, an approach that tries to establish the validity or objectivity of moral judgments by examining the modes of reasoning used to support them. The approach first appeared in An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics (1950) by Stephen Toulmin, a British philosopher of science and ethicist. In general, the approach represents a reaction


Gemeente (commune), Zuid-Holland provincie, western Netherlands, on the Ringvaart, a canal around the Haarlemmermeer polder. With Lisse it is one of the two great commercial centres of Holland's bulb-growing district and is the site of the Treslong Demonstration Garden (1949) and bulb exchange. The annual Bulb Parade held on a Saturday in late April passes through Hillegom.

Sunday, April 04, 2004

Cronin, A.j.

Cronin was educated at the University of Glasgow and served as a surgeon in the Royal Navy during World War I. He practiced in South Wales (1921–24) and then, as medical inspector of mines, investigated


Although the class was officially abolished in 1871 (under the Emancipation Act of the Meiji period),

Esterházy Family

By the 18th century the Esterházys had become the largest landowners in Hungary, and they came to possess a private fortune even larger than that of the Habsburg emperors whose supporters they were. The various members of the family continued to hold important

Saturday, April 03, 2004


Formerly part of the Cola empire, the area came under Muslim occupation in the 16th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries it was the scene of constant warfare between Muslim, British, and French troops. When much of the coastal plain

Friday, April 02, 2004


Also called  Alpha Scorpii  red, semiregular variable star, with apparent visual magnitude about 0.9, the brightest star in the zodiacal constellation Scorpius and one of the largest known stars, having several hundred times the diameter of the Sun and several thousand times the Sun's luminosity. It has a fifth-magnitude blue companion. Antares lies about 400 light-years from the Earth. The name seems


Town, north-central Puerto Rico, situated on the humid coastal lowlands. Of Indian origins, the name Manatí refers to a sea mammal, the manatee. Founded in 1738 on the northernmost point of limestone hills, Manatí is linked by road to San Juan. The town produces shoes, pearl buttons, clothing, and woodwork and has a pineapple cannery. Manatí is the centre of an agricultural area

Thursday, April 01, 2004

'adud Ad-dawlah

Becoming ruler of Fars province in southern Iran in 944, 'Adud ad-Dawlah did not actually reign on his own until almost a decade later. But by 979 his authority extended, through inheritance and conquest, over all southern Iran and most of what is now Iraq. He became famous for his public works, which included a dam still standing near

Azaña Y Díaz, Manuel

Azaña studied law in Madrid and became a civil servant, journalist, and writer, figuring prominently in Ateneo, a Madrid literary club. He