Tuesday, March 30, 2004


Pinyin  Jining , conventional  Tsining  city in southwestern Shantung sheng (province), China. In early times the seat of the state of Jen, it later became a part of the state of Ch'i, which flourished in the Chou period (c. 1122–221 BC). It underwent many changes of name and administrative status. The present name, Chi-ning, first appeared under Mongol rule in AD 1271. In early times the city was usually subordinated to Yen-chou, about 20 miles


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